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Editors-in-Chief
    Professor Chang-Koon Choi(Managing Ed.)
    Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
    Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology
    Daejeon 305-701, Korea

    Dr. John D. Holmes
    JDH Consulting
    P.O. Box 269, Mentone
    Victoria 3194, Australia

 Impact factor:1.254(2012)
ISSN: 1226-6116(Print), ISSN: 1598-6225(Online)
Vol 18/19(12 issues) for 2014, Monthly
Aims and Scope
The WIND AND STRUCTURES, An International Journal, aims at: - Major publication channel for research in the general area of wind and structural engineering, - Wider distribution at more affordable subscription rates; - Faster reviewing and publication for manuscripts submitted.
The main theme of the Journal is the wind effects on structures. Areas covered by the journal include:
Wind loads and structural response
Bluff-body aerodynamics
Computational method
Wind tunnel modeling
Local wind environment
Codes and regulations
Wind effects on large scale structures
Editorial Board
Prof. C.J. Baker
University of Birmingham
Birmingham, B15 STT, UK

Dr. Daryl Boggs
CPP, Inc.
Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA

Prof. Steve C.S. Cai
Louisiana State University
Louisiana, 70803, USA

Prof. Shuyang CAO
Tongji University
Shanghai, 200092, China

Prof. Chun-Man Chan
Hong Kong U of Sciand Tech
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Prof. Chi-Ming Cheng
Tamkang University
Taipei, 25137, Taiwan

Prof. Xinzhong Chen
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409-1023, USA

Dr. Nicholas J. Cook
RWDI-Anemos Ltd.
Dunstable, Bedfordshire LU6 1BD, UK

Prof. Yaojun Ge
Tongji University
Shanghai, 200092, China

Prof. Chris Geurts
Eindhoven Univ. of Tech
NL 2600 AA, Delft, Netherlands

Prof. Massimiliano Gioffre
Perugia University
06125, Perugia, Italy

Dr. Adam Goliger
CSIR, Div. Bldg. Tech.
Pretoria, 0001, South Africa

Prof. Ming Gu
Tongji University
Shanghai, 200092, China

Dr. Guoqing Huang
Southwest Jiaotong University
Chengdu, 610031, China

Prof. Mingfeng Huang
Zhejiang University
Hangzhou, 310058, China

Dr. Michael Kasperski
Ruhr-University Bochum
D-44780, Bochum, Germany

Prof. Young-Duk Kim
Kwandong University
Kangwon-Do, 215-701, Korea

Prof. Hrvoje Kozmar
University of Zagreb
10000, Zagreb, Croatia
Prof. K.C.S. Kwok
Univ. of Western Sydney
Richmond, NSW 2753, Australia

Prof. S.J. Lee
Pohang Univ. of Sci. & Tech.
Pohang, 790-784, Korea

Prof. C.W. Letchford
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY 12180, USA

Prof. Chunxiang Li
Shanghai University
Shanghai, 200072, China

Prof. Yongle Li
Southwest Jiaotong University
Chengdu, 610031, China

Dr. Craig Miller
Univ. of Western Ontario
Ontario, N6A 5B9, Canada

Prof. J.P. Pinelli
Florida Institute of Technology
Melbourne, FL 32901, USA

Prof. P.J. Richards
University of Auckland
Auckland, 1010, New Zealand

Prof. H. Ruscheweyh
Ruscheweyh Consult GmbH
D-52074, Aachen, Germany

Dr. Ana Scarabino
Univ. of La Plata
La Plata, 1900, Argentina

Dr. Rajnish N Sharma
Univ. of Auckland
Auckland, 1010, New Zealand

Prof. Giovanni Solari
University of Genova
Genova, 16145, Italy

Prof. Acir Mercio Loredo-Souza
Univ. of Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
90035-190,Porto Alegre, Brazil

Prof. Ted Stathopoulos
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada

Prof. Yukio Tamura
Tokyo Inst. of Politech.
Kanagawa, 243-02, Japan

Dr. Weiguo Wang
Nat'l Centers for Environ. Prediction
College Park, MD 20740, USA

Dr. Graeme Wood
CPP Inc.
NSW 2044, Australia

Prof. Y.L. Xu
The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ.
HungHom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Instructions to Authors

1. Submission of the paper
Authors are asked to submit manuscripts in PDF format electronically through the Techno-Press Manuscript Upload System (TeMUS) (http://www.techno-press.org/papers). Exceptionally, the special issue papers may be directly submitted to the Guest Editor. If you have difficulties in using TeMUS, please contact us at[technop5@chol.com]. On receiving submitted papers, the system will issue the paper ID and Password to the corresponding author which may be conveniently used to check the status of submitted papers.
2. Preparation of the manuscript
General : The manuscripts should be in English and typed with single column and single line spacing on single side of A4 paper. Submitted papers will be published in three categories, i.e., 1) Regular technical paper, 2) Review papers and 3) Discussions. The first page of an article should contain; (1) a title of paper which well reflects the contents of the paper (Arial, 16pt), (2) all the name(s) and affiliations(s) of authors(s) (Arial, 12pt), (3) an abstract of 100~250 words (Times New Roman, 11pt), (4) 5-10 keywords following the abstract, and (5) footnote (personal title and email address of the corresponding author (required) and other authors' (not mandatory)). The paper should be concluded by proper conclusions which reflect the findings in the paper. The normal length of the technical paper should be about 14-20 journal pages. There will be no page charges and no other fees unless the author wishes arrangements to provide an open access to his article. Authors are advised to read the details in the Appendix A for guide and Appendix B for a template of the instructions to authors for the format of the first page of the paper.
Tables and figures : Tables and figures should be consecutively numbered and have short titles. They should be referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Fig. 1(a), Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1(a)-(d) / Table 1, Tables 1-2), etc. Tables should have borders (1/2pt plane line) with the captions right before the table. Figures should be properly located in the text as an editable image file (.jpg) with captions on the lower cell. All of the original figures are required at the end of the manuscript for reference in editing.
Units and mathematical expressions : It is desirable that units of measurements and abbreviations should follow the System Internationale (SI) except where the other unit system is more suitable. The numbers identifying the displayed mathematical expression should be placed in the parentheses and referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Eq. (1), Eqs. (1)-(2)). Mathematical expressions must be inserted as an object (set as Microsoft Equations 3.0) for Microsoft Word 2007 and after versions. Image-copied text or equations are not acceptable unless they are editable. The raised and lowered fonts cannot be used for superscription and subscription.
References : A list of references which reflect the current state of technology in the field locates after conclusions of the paper. For details to prepare the list of references and cite them in the text, authors are advised to follow the introduction and the sample list in the Appendix A of the instruction.
3. Review
All the submitted papers will undergo a peer-review process, and those papers positively recommended by at least two expert reviewers will be finally accepted for publication in the Techno-Press Journals or after any required modifications are made.
4. Proofs
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript will not be accepted at this stage. Proofs should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.
5. Copyright
Submission of an article to a Techno-Press Journal implies that it presents the original and unpublished work, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. On acceptance of the submitted manuscript, it is implied that the copyright thereof is transferred to the Techno-Press. The Transfer of Copyright Agreement may also be submitted.
6. Ethics
For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, International standards for editors and authors (http://publicationethics.org/international-standards-editors-and-authors) can be applied.

*Appendix A. Authors' Guide
*Appendix B. Template
*Appendix C. Index
Abstracted/indexed in
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
ISI Alerting Services
Current Contents/Engineering, Computing & Technology
ANBAR
International Civil Engineering Abstracts
ProQuest
Metals Abstracts
Engineering Index
COMPENDEX PLUS
Applied Mechanics Reviews
Shock and Vibration Digest
Sample Issue
Volume 15, Number 1, January 2012
  • Wind characteristics of a strong typhoon in marine surface boundary layer
    Lili Song, Q.S. Li, Wenchao Chen, Peng Qin, Haohui Huang and Y.C. He
    Abstract; Full Text (2220K)

Abstract
High-resolution wind data were acquired from a 100-m high offshore tower during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit in September, 2008. The meteorological tower was equipped with an ultrasonic anemometer and a number of cup anemometers at heights between 10 and 100 m. Wind characteristics of the strong typhoon, such as mean wind speed and wind direction, turbulence intensity, turbulence integral length scale, gust factor and power spectra of wind velocity, vertical profiles of mean wind speed were investigated in detail based on the wind data recorded during the strong typhoon. The measured results revealed that the wind characteristics in different stages during the typhoon varied remarkably. Through comparison with non-typhoon wind measurements, the phenomena of enhanced levels of turbulence intensity, gust factors, turbulence integral length scale and spectral magnitudes in typhoon boundary layer were observed. The monitored data and analysis results are expected to be useful for the wind-resistant design of offshore structures and buildings on seashores in typhoon-prone regions.

Key Words
strong typhoon; wind characteristic; wind data measurement.

Address
Lili Song : Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, 510080, China Q.S. Li : Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Wenchao Chen , Peng Qin and Haohui Huang : Guangdong Climate Centre, Guangzhou, 510080, China Y.C. He : Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

  • Computing turbulent far-wake development behind a wind turbine with and without swirl
    Yingying Hu, Siva Parameswaran, Jiannan Tan, Suranga Dharmarathne, Neha Marathe, Zixi Chen, Ronald Grife and Andrew Swift
    Abstract; Full Text (1178K)

Abstract
Modeling swirling wakes is of considerable interest to wind farm designers. The present work is an attempt to develop a computational tool to understand free, far-wake development behind a single rotating wind turbine. Besides the standard momentum and continuity equations from the boundary layer theory in two dimensions, an additional equation for the conservation of angular momentum is introduced to study axisymmetric swirl effects on wake growth. Turbulence is simulated with two options: the standard k-e model and the Reynolds Stress transport model. A finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equations for mean flow and turbulence quantities. A marching algorithm of expanding grids is employed to enclose the growing far-wake and to solve the equations implicitly at every axial step. Axisymmetric far-wakes with/without swirl are studied at different Reynolds numbers and swirl numbers. Wake characteristics such as wake width, half radius, velocity profiles and pressure profiles are computed. Compared with the results obtained under similar flow conditions using the computational software, FLUENT, this far-wake model shows simplicity with acceptable accuracy, covering large wake regions in far-wake study.

Key Words
far wake; swirl; boundary layer; self-similarity; k-e model; Reynolds Stress transport model.

Address
Yingying Hu, Siva Parameswaran, Jiannan Tan, Suranga Dharmarathne and Zixi Chen: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA Neha Marathe and Andrew Swift : Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA Ronald Grife : Vestas Technology R&D Americas, Inc., USA

  • A proposed technique for determining aerodynamic pressures on residential homes
    Tuan-Chun Fu, Aly Mousaad Aly, Arindam Gan Chowdhury, Girma Bitsuamlak, DongHun Yeo and Emil Simiu
    Abstract; Full Text (3429K)

Abstract
Wind loads on low-rise buildings in general and residential homes in particular can differ significantly depending upon the laboratory in which they were measured. The differences are due in large part to inadequate simulations of the low-frequency content of atmospheric velocity fluctuations in the laboratory and to the small scale of the models used for the measurements. The imperfect spatial coherence of the low frequency velocity fluctuations results in reductions of the overall wind effects with respect to the case of perfectly coherent flows. For large buildings those reductions are significant. However, for buildings with sufficiently small dimensions (e.g., residential homes) the reductions are relatively small. A technique is proposed for simulating the effect of low-frequency flow fluctuations on such buildings more effectively from the point of view of testing accuracy and repeatability than is currently the case. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed technique. The technique eliminates a major cause of discrepancies among measurements conducted in different laboratories. In addition, the technique allows the use of considerably larger model scales than are possible in conventional testing. This makes it possible to model architectural details, and improves Reynolds number similarity. The technique is applicable to wind tunnels and large scale open jet facilities, and can help to standardize flow simulations for testing residential homes as well as significantly improving testing accuracy and repeatability. The work reported in this paper is a first step in developing the proposed technique. Additional tests are planned to further refine the technique and test the range of its applicability.

Key Words
aerodynamics; atmospheric surface layer; building technology; low-rise structures; open jet facilities; residential buildings; wind engineering; wind tunnels.

Address
Tuan-Chun Fu,Arindam Gan Chowdhury and Girma Bitsuamlak :Department of Civil and Environ. Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, USA Aly Mousaad Aly :Intl. Hurricane Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, USA DongHun Yeo and Emil Simiu : National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA

  • A neural network shelter model for small wind turbine siting near single obstacles
    Andrew William Brunskill and William David Lubitz
    Abstract; Full Text (2392K)

Abstract
Many potential small wind turbine locations are near obstacles such as buildings and shelterbelts, which can have a significant, detrimental effect on the local wind climate. A neural networkbased model has been developed which predicts mean wind speed and turbulence intensity at points in an obstacle\'s region of influence, relative to unsheltered conditions. The neural network was trained using measurements collected in the wakes of 18 scale building models exposed to a simulated rural atmospheric boundary layer in a wind tunnel. The model obstacles covered a range of heights, widths, depths, and roof pitches typical of rural buildings. A field experiment was conducted using three unique full scale obstacles to validate model predictions and wind tunnel measurements. The accuracy of the neural network model varies with the quantity predicted and position in the obstacle wake. In general, predictions of mean velocity deficit in the far wake region are most accurate. The overall estimated mean uncertainties associated with model predictions of normalized mean wind speed and turbulence intensity are 4.9% and 12.8%, respectively.

Key Words
wind tunnel; small wind turbine; wind energy; micrositing; wake prediction; anemometer; sheltering; neural network.

Address
Andrew William Brunskill and William David Lubitz : University of Guelph, School of Engineering. 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. N1G 2W1

  • Observed characteristics of tropical cyclone vertical wind profiles
    Ian M. Giammanco, John L. Schroeder and Mark D. Powell
    Abstract; Full Text (4334K)

Abstract
Over the last decade substantial improvements have been made in our ability to observe the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Low-level wind speed maxima have been frequently observed in Global Positioning System dropwindsonde (GPS sonde) profiles. Data from GPS sondes and coastal Doppler radars were employed to evaluate the characteristics of tropical cyclone vertical wind profiles in open ocean conditions and at landfall. Changes to the mean vertical wind profile were observed azimuthally and with decreasing radial distance toward the cyclone center. Wind profiles within the hurricane boundary layer exhibited a logarithmic increase with height up to the depth of the wind maximum.

Key Words
tropical cyclones; GPS dropwindsonde; radar; wind; profiles; low-level jets; velocity azimuth display.

Address
Ian M. Giammanco and John L. Schroeder: Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas USA Mark D. Powell : NOAA/AOML Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA

Table of Contents
       
 
  • 2014  Volume 19      No. 1  
     
  • 2014  Volume 18      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2013  Volume 17      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2013  Volume 16      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2012  Volume 15      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2011  Volume 14      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2010  Volume 13      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2009  Volume 12      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2008  Volume 11      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2007  Volume 10      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2006  Volume 9      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2005  Volume 8      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2004  Volume 7      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2003  Volume 6      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2002  Volume 5      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2001  Volume 4      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
     
  • 2000  Volume 3      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
     
  • 1999  Volume 2      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
     
  • 1998  Volume 1      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
           
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