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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 2, June 2016
 

Abstract
Metakaolin, a dehydroxylated product of the mineral kaolinite, is one of the most valuable admixtures for high-performance concrete applications, including constructing reinforced concrete bridges and impact- and fire-resistant structures. Concretes produced using metakaolin become more homogeneous and denser compared to normal-strength concrete. Yet, these changes cause a change of volume throughout hardening, and increase the brittleness of hardened concrete significantly. In order to examine how the use of metakaolin affects the fracture and mechanical behavior of high-performance concrete we produced concretes using a range of water to binder ratio (0.42, 0.35 and 0.28) at three different weight fractions of metakaolin replacement (8%, 16% and 24%). The results showed that the rigidity of concretes increased with using 8% and 16% metakaolin, while it decreased in all series with 24% of metakaolin replacement. Similar effect has also been observed for other mechanical properties. While the peak loads in load-displacement curves of concretes decreased significantly with increasing water to binder ratio, this effect have been found to be diminished by using metakaolin. Pore structure analysis through mercury intrusion porosimetry test showed that the addition of metakaolin decreased the critical pore size of paste phases of concrete, and increasing the amount of metakaolin reduced the total porosity for the specimens with low water to binder ratios in particular. To determine the optimal values of water to binder ratio and metakaolin content in producing high-strength and high-performance concrete we applied a multi-objective optimization, where several responses were simultaneously assessed to find the best solution for each parameter.

Key Words
Metakaolin; brittleness; fracture energy; pore structure; mechanical strength; optimization

Address
Burcu Akcay: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kocaeli, Umuttepe 41380, Turkey

Cengiz Sengul and Mehmet ali Tasdemir: Civil Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
The post - fire investigation is conducted on a fire-affected reinforced concrete shear wall building to ascertain the level of its strength degradation due to the fire incident. Fire incident took place in a three-storey building made of reinforced concrete shear wall and roof with operating floors made of steel beams and chequered plates. The usage of the building is to handle explosives. Elevated temperature during the fire is estimated to be 3500C based on visual inspection. Destructive (core extraction) and non-destructive (rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity) tests are conducted to evaluate the concrete strength. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are used for analyzing micro structural changes of the concrete due to fire. Tests are conducted for concrete walls and roof slab on both burnt and unburnt locations. The analysis of test results reveals no significant degradation of the building after the fire which signifies that the structure can be used with full expectancy of performance for the remaining service life. This document can be used as a reference for future forensic investigations of similar fire affected concrete structures.

Key Words
fire; forensic investigation; shear wall building; non-destructive test; reinforced concrete

Address
Abhijit Mistri, Robin Davis P and Pradip Sarkar:Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela Odisha – 769 008, India

Abstract
This concrete is one of the most versatile construction material widely used for almost a century now. It was considered to be very durable material and required a little or no maintenance since long time. The assumption is very true, except when it is subjected to highly aggressive environments. The deterioration of concrete structures day by day due to aggressive environment is compelling engineers to assess the loss in advance so that proper preventive measure can be taken to achieve required durability to concrete structures. The compounds present in cement concrete are attacked by many salt solutions and acids. These chemicals are encountered by almost all concrete structures. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of attack of chlorides and sulphates with varying severity on compressive strength of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) concrete after immersion in salt solution for 28 days. The results indicate that the durability of GGBFS concrete increases with the increase in percentage replacement of cement by GGBFS for 20% and then gradually decreases with increases in percentage of GGBFS with cement (as in the study for 40% and 60%). Also there is increase in strength of GGBFS concrete with increase in age. Thus the durability of concrete improves when GGBFS is added as partial replacement of cement. In this study the strength of GGBFS concrete is less affected by chemicals as compared to conventional concrete when exposed to aggressive environment.

Key Words
GGBFS; durability; chloride; slag; sulphate; concrete; chemical; strength

Address
Deepankar K. Ashish and Surender K.Verma: Department of Civil Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh160-012, India
Deepankar K. Ashish: Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Maharaja Agrasen University, Baddi 174-103, India
Bhupinder Singh: Department of Civil Engineering, Indo Global College of Engineering, Mohali 140-109, India

Abstract
Use of heavy fuel fly ash (HFFA) (diesel and cracked fuel) for power generation in Saudi Arabia has generated and accumulated large quantities of HFFA as a byproduct. In this research, HFFA is studied with the emphasis on the utilization of this waste material in concrete blocks and asphalt concrete mixes. Two types of mixes, one with low and other with high cement content, were studied for concrete blocks. Different mixes having varying percentages of HFFA (0% to 25%), as cement/sand replacement or as an additive, were studied. The performance of concrete blocks is evaluated in terms of compressive strength, water absorption, durability and environmental concerns. The results showed that blocks cannot be cast if more than 15% HFFA is used; also there is a marginal reduction in the strength of all the mixes before and after being exposed to the sulfate solution for a period of ten months. HFFA is studied in asphalt concrete mixes in two ways, as an asphalt modifier (3&5%) and as a filler (50%) replacement, the results showed an improvement in stiffness and fatigue life of mixes. However, the stability and indirect tensile strength loss were found to be high as compared to the control mix due to moisture damage, indicating a need of using antistripping agents. On environmental concerns, it was found that most of the concerned elements are within acceptable limits also it is observed that lower concentration of barium is leached out with the higher HFFA concentrations, which indicates that HFFA may work as an adsorbent for this leaching element.

Key Words
concrete block; heavy fuel oil fly ash; compressive strength; water absorption; durability; Asphalt concrete mixes

Address
Mohammed A. Al-Osta, Mirza G. Baig, Muhammad H. Al-Malack
and Omar S. Baghabra Al-Amoudi: Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Marble is a metamorphic rock used widely in construction which increases amount of marble powder obtained from it. Marble powder is a waste product obtained from marble during its processing. Marble waste is high in calcium oxide content which is cementing property but it creates many environmental hazards too if left in environment or in water. In this research, partial replacement of cement and sand by waste marble powder (WMP) has been investigated. Seven concrete mixtures were prepared for this investigation by partially replacing cement, sand with WMP at proportions of 0%, 10% and 15% by weight separately and in combined form. To determine compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength of concrete made with waste marble powder, the samples at the curing ages of 7, 28 and 90 days was recorded. Different tests of durability were applied on samples like ultrasonic pulse wave test, absorption and sorptivity. For further investigation all the results were compared and noticed that WMP has shown good results and enhancing mechanical properties of concrete mix on partially replacing with sand and cement in set proportions. Moreover, it will solve the problem of environmental health hazard.

Key Words
waste marble powder; concrete; strength; pulse velocity; sorptivity; water absorption; durability; X-ray diffraction

Address
Deepankar K. Ashish and Surender K. Verma: Department of Civil Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh 160-012, India

Ravi Kumar and Nitisha Sharma: Department of Civil Engineering, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136-119, India


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