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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 5, October 2005
 

Abstract
This work presents an assessment of the computational performance of a vector-parallel implementation of probabilistic model for concrete cracking in 3D. This paper shows the continuing efforts towards code optimization as reported in earlier works Paz, et al. (2002a,b and 2003). The probabilistic crack approach is based on the direct Monte Carlo method. Cracking is accounted by means of 3D interface elements. This approach considers that all nonlinearities are restricted to interface elements modeling cracks. The heterogeneity governs the overall cracking behavior and related size effects on concrete fracture. Computational kernels in the implementation are the inexact Newton iterative driver to solve the non-linear problem and a preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) driver to solve linearized equations, using an element by element (EBE) strategy to compute matrix-vector products. In particular the paper analyzes code behavior using OpenMP directives in parallel vector processors (PVP), such as the CRAY SV1 and CRAY T94. The impact of the memory architecture on code performance, and also some strategies devised to circumvent this issue are addressed by numerical experiment.

Key Words
high performance computing; openMP directives; vector-parallel performance analysis; non linear analysis; probabilistic discrete cracking in concrete; 3D finite elements; size effects; heterogeneity material.

Address
LAMCE/COPPE/UFRJ, Program of Civil Engineering, PO Box 68552, 21944-900, Brazil

Abstract
Recent earthquakes have shown that many of existing buildings in Iran sustain heavy damage due to defective seismic details. To assess vulnerability of one common type of buildings, which consists of low rise framed concrete structures, three defective and three standard columns have been tested under reversed cyclic load. The substandard specimens suffered in average 37% loss of strength and 45% loss of energy dissipation capacity relative to standard specimens, and this was mainly due to less lateral and longitudinal reinforcement and insufficient sectional dimensions. A relationship has been developed to introduce variation of plastic length under increasing displacement amplitude. At ultimate state, the length of plastic hinge is almost equal to full depth of section. Using calibrated hysteresis models, the response of different specimens under two earthquakes has been analyzed. The analysis indicated that the ratio between displacement demand and capacity of standard specimens is about unity and that of deficient ones is about 1.7.

Key Words
reinforced concrete column; defective seismic details; cyclic load test; plastic hinge length; numerical modeling.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, PO. Box 11365-4563, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study on binary blends of Portland cement and fly ash with complex admixture used for the concrete structures to meet specific performance objectives in east coastal area of China. The concretes were evaluated for workability, strength, water permeability, drying shrinkage, sulfate resistance and electrical resistance. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was used to examine the microstructure of concrete made by complex admixture compared with control batches without complex admixture. The combined efforts of fly ash and complex admixture led to an improvement in the workability, strength and durability.

Key Words
reinforced concrete column; defective seismic details; cyclic load test; plastic hinge length; numerical modeling.

Address
fly ash; durability; admixture; sulfate attack.

Abstract
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is evidently a powerful tool for the analysis of structural concrete having nonlinearity and brittle failure properties. However, the result of FEA of structural concrete is sensitive to two modeling factors: the shear transfer coefficient (STC) for an open concrete crack and force convergence tolerance value (CONVTOL). Very limited work has been done to find the optimal FE Modeling (FEM) methodologies for structural concrete members strengthened with externally bonded FRP sheets. A total of 22 experimental deep beams with or without FRP flexure or/and shear strengthening systems are analyzed by nonlinear FEA using ANAYS program. For each experimental beams, an FE model with a total of 16 cases of modeling factor combinations are developed and analyzed to find the optimal FEM methodology. Two elements the SHELL63 and SOLID46 representing the material properties of FRP laminate are investigated and compared. The results of this research suggest that the optimal combination of modeling factor is STC of 0.25 and CONVTOL of 0.2. A SOLID 46 element representing the FRP strengthening system leads to better results than a SHELL 63 element does.

Key Words
CFRP composites; bridge piers; strengthening; finite element method.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, 255 Link Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244-1190, U.S.A.

Abstract
A linear programming problem of the optimal proportioning of concrete aggregates is discussed; and a self-adaptive genetic algorithm is developed to solve this problem. The proposed method is based on changing a range of variables for capturing the feasible region of the optimum solution. A computational verification of this method is compared with the results of the linear programming.

Key Words
A linear programming problem of the optimal proportioning of concrete aggregates is discussed; and a self-adaptive genetic algorithm is developed to solve this problem. The proposed method is based on changing a range of variables for capturing the feasible region of the optimum solution. A computational verification of this method is compared with the results of the linear programming.

Address
Adil Amirjanov; Department of Computer Engineering, Near East University, Nicosia, N. Cyprus rnKonstantin Sobolev; Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, AP #17, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicol? de los Garza, NL, 66450, Mexico


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