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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 6, December 2005
 

Abstract
In this study two single-bay, three-storey space frames, one with brick masonry infill in the second and third floors representing a soft-storey frame and the other without infill were designed and their 1:3 scale models were constructed according to non-seismic detailing and the similitude law. The models were excited with an intensity of earthquake motion as specified in the form of response spectrum in Indian seismic code IS 1893-2002 using a shake table. The seismic responses of the soft-storey frame such as fundamental frequency, mode shape, base shear and stiffness were compared with that of the bare frame. It was observed that the presence of open ground floor in the soft-storey infilled frame reduced the natural frequency by 30%. The shear demand in the soft-storey frame was found to be more than two and a half times greater than that in the bare frame. From the mode shape it was found that, the bare frame vibrated in the flexure mode whereas the soft-storey frame vibrated in the shear mode. The frames were tested to failure and the damaged soft-storey frame was retrofitted with concrete jacketing and, subjected to same earthquake motions as the original frames. Pushover analysis was carried out using the software package SAP 2000 to validate the test results. The performance point was obtained for all the frames under study, therefore the frames were found to be adequate for gravity loads and moderate earthquakes. It was concluded that the global nonlinear seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with masonry infill can be adequately simulated using static nonlinear pushover analysis.

Key Words
reinforced concrete frames; soft-storey frame; shake table test; pushover analysis; seismic response; masonry infill.

Address
M. Helen Santhi and G. M. Samuel Knight; Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, IndiarnK. Muthumani; Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai 600 113, India

Abstract
When deterioration of concrete is observed in a structure, it is highly desirable to determine the cause of such deterioration. Only by understanding the cause can an appropriate repair strategy be implemented to address both the cause and the symptom. In colder climates, bridge deck deterioration is often caused by chlorides from de-icing salts, which penetrate the concrete and depassivate the embedded reinforcement, causing corrosion. Bridge decks can also suffer from other deterioration mechanisms, such as alkali-silica reaction, freeze-thaw, and shrinkage. There is a need for a comprehensive and integrative system to help with the inspection and evaluation of concrete bridge deck deterioration before decisions are made on the best way to repair it. The purpose of this research was to develop a model to help with the diagnosis of concrete bridge deck deterioration that integrates the symptoms observed during an inspection, various deterioration mechanisms, and the probability of their occurrence given the available data. The model displays the diagnosis result as the probability that one of four deterioration mechanisms, namely shrinkage, corrosion of reinforcement, freeze-thaw and alkali-silica reaction, is at fault. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which probabilities in the model require refinement. Two case studies are included in this investigation.

Key Words
concrete deterioration; probabilistic reasoning; ASR; diagnostic model.

Address
Hrodny Njardardottir and Brenda McCabe; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadarnMichael D. A. Thomas; Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada

Abstract
This paper describes a 2D nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) platform that combines heat flow analysis with realistic analysis of cracked reinforced concrete structures. The behavior models included in the structural analysis are mainly based on the Modified Compression Field Theory and the Distributed Stress Field Model. The heat flow analysis takes into account time-varying thermal loads and temperature-dependent material properties. The capability of 2D nonlinear transient thermal analysis is then implemented into a nonlinear finite element analysis program VecTor2?for 2D reinforced concrete membranes. Analyses of four numerical examples are performed using VecTor2, and results obtained indicate that the suggested nonlinear finite element analysis procedure is capable of modeling the complete response of a concrete structure to thermal and mechanical loads.

Key Words
nonlinear finite element analysis; structural analysis; heat flow analysis; transient thermal loads; closed-form element stiffness.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4, Canada

Abstract
A wavelet based approach is proposed for structural damage detection in beams, plate and delamination of composite plates. Wavelet theory is applied here for crack identification of a beam element with a transverse on edge non-propagating open crack. Finite difference method was used for generating a general displacement equation for the cracked beam in the first example. In the second and third example, damage is detected from the deformed shape of a loaded simply supported plate applying the wavelet theory. Delamination in composite plate is identified using wavelet theory in the fourth example. The main concept used is the breaking down of the dynamic signal of a structural response into a series of local basis function called wavelets, so as to detect the special characteristics of the structure by scaling and transformation property of wavelets. In the light of the results obtained, limitations of the proposed method as well as suggestions for future work are presented. Results show great promise of wavelet approach for damage detection and structural health monitoring.

Key Words
damage detection; wavelet analysis; finite difference-composite plates-finite element method-delamination.

Address
Infrastructure Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract
A composite model is used to represent the heterogeneity of plain concrete consisting of coarse aggregates, mortar matrix and the mortar-aggregate interface. The composite elements of plain concrete are modeled using triangular finite element units which have six interface nodes along the sides. Fracture is captured through a constitutive single branch softening-fracture law at the interface nodes, which bounds the elastic domain inside each triangular unit. The inelastic displacement at an interface node represents the crack opening or sliding displacement and is conjugate to the internodal force. The path-dependent softening behaviour is developed within a quasi-prescribed displacement control formulation. The crack profile is restricted to the interface boundaries of the defined mesh. No re-meshing is carried out. Solutions to the rate formulation are obtained using a mathematical programming procedure in the form of a linear complementary problem. An event by event solution strategy is adopted to eliminate solutions with simultaneous formation of softening zones in symmetric problems. The composite plain concrete model is compared to experimental results for the tensile crack growth in a Brazilian test and three-point bending tests on different sized specimens. The model is also used to simulate wedge-type shear-compression failure directly under the loading platen of a Brazilian test.

Key Words
fracture; concrete; composite; cracking; Brazilian test.

Address
School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia


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