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CONTENTS
Volume 23, Number 2, February 2019
 

Abstract
The unexpected seismic interaction of dry-assembled precast concrete frame structures typical of the European heritage with their precast cladding panels brought to extensive failures of the panels during recent earthquakes due to the inadequateness of their connection systems. Following this recognition, an experimental campaign of cyclic and pseudodynamic tests has been performed at ELSA laboratory of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission on a full-scale prototype of precast structure with vertical and horizontal cladding panels within the framework of the Safecladding project. The panels were connected to the frame structure by means of innovative arrangements of fastening systems including isostatic, integrated and dissipative. Many of the investigated configurations involved a strong frame-cladding interaction, modifying the structural behaviour of the frame turning it into highly non-linear since small deformation. In such cases, properly modelling the connections becomes fundamental in the framework of a design by non-linear dynamic analysis. This paper presents the peculiarities of the numerical models of precast frame structures equipped with the various cladding connection systems which have been set to predict and simulate the experimental results from pseudo-dynamic tests. The comparison allows to validate the structural models and to derive recommendations for a proper modelling of the different types of existing and innovative cladding connection systems.

Key Words
precast structures; cladding panels; earthquake engineering; connection devices; numerical modelling

Address
Bruno Dal Lago: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy

Abstract
This paper describes the design of a new interlocking masonry system, the production of designed interlocking units and mechanical properties of interlocked masonry assemblages with mortar. In this proposed system, units have horizontal and vertical locks to integrate the units to the wall and have a channel to enable the use of horizontal reinforcements in the wall. Using these units, unfilled, filled or reinforced walls can be constructed with or without mortar. In the production of the interlocking units, it was decided to use foamed concrete. 12 trial productions have been carried out at different mix proportions to obtain the optimum concrete mix. At the end of the mentioned productions, the units were produced with foam concrete which is selected as the most suitable in terms of compressive strength and specific gravity. Then, axial compression, diagonal tension and bed joint shear tests were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the interlocked masonry assemblages with mortar. Results from the tests showed that interlocks designed to strengthen the system against shear stresses by creating discontinuity throughout the joints have been successful to achieve their aim. Obtained data will enable structural analysis of walls to be constructed with these new units.

Key Words
interlocking masonry; mechanical behavior; experimental study; foam concrete; mortared joints; masonry

Address
Metin Husem and Fatma Birinci Kayaalp: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
In-service reinforced concrete structures are simultaneously subjected to a combination of multi-deterioration environmental actions and mechanical loads. The combination of two or more deteriorative actions in environments can potentially accelerate the degradation and aging of concrete materials and structures. This paper reviews the coupling and synergistic mechanisms among various deteriorative driving forces (e.g. chloride salts- and carbonation-induced reinforcement corrosion, cyclic freeze-thaw action, alkali-silica reaction, and sulfate attack). In addition, the effects of mechanical loads on detrimental environmental factors are discussed, focusing on the transport properties and damage evolution in concrete. Recommendations for advancing current testing methods and predictive modeling on assessing the long-term durability of concrete with consideration of the coupling effects are provided.

Key Words
concrete; multi-deterioration mechanisms; environmental factors; mechanical loading; durability design

Address
Hailong Ye: Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR China
Nanguo Jin: Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China

Abstract
Due to the heterogeneity nature of the concrete, it is difficult to simulate the hyperdynamic behaviour and crack trajectory of concrete material when subjected to explosion loads. In this paper, a 3D nonlinear numerical study was conducted to simulate the hyperdynamic behaviour of concrete under various loading conditions using Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma (RHT) model. Detailed calibration was conducted to identify the optimal parameters for the RHT model on the material level. For the component level, the calibrated RHT parameters were used to simulate the failure behaviour of plain concrete (PC) slab under free air blast load. The response was compared with an available experimental result. The results show the proposed numerical model can accurately simulate the crack trajectory and the failure mode of the PC slab under free air blast load.

Key Words
3D nonlinear finite element analysis; RHT model; plain concrete; free air blast load; mesh sensitivity

Address
Mohamed Rashad: Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
T.Y. Yang: Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; International Joint Research Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Abstract
The paper presents the experimental investigations into the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on the time-dependent tensile strength of concrete. The splitting and flexural tensile strength of concrete was determined at the ages of 3, 7, 28, 56, 90, 150 and 180 days using the cylindrical and prism specimens respectively for plain and GGBFS concrete. The amount of cement replacement by GGBFS was 0%, 40% and 60% on the weight basis. The maximum curing age was kept as 28 days. The results showed that the splitting and flexural tensile strength of concrete containing GGBFS has been found lower than the plain concrete at all ages and for all mixes. The tensile strength of 40 percent replacement has been found higher than the 60 percent at all ages and for all mixes. The rate of gain of splitting and flexural tensile strength of 40 percent GGBFS concrete is found higher than the plain concrete and 60 percent GGBFS concrete at the ages varying from 28 to 180 days. The experimental results of time-dependent tensile strength of concrete are compared with the available models. New models for the prediction of time-dependent splitting and flexural tensile strength of concrete containing GGBFS are proposed. The present experimental and analytical study will be helpful for the designers to know the time-dependent tensile properties of GGBFS concrete to meet the design requirements of liquid retaining reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures.

Key Words
concrete; GGBFS; time-dependent; tensile strength; curing age

Address
M. Shariq: Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
J. Prasad: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India

Abstract
Adaptive schemes are constructed in this paper for modeling the effective chloride diffusion coefficient of cementbased materials (paste and concrete). Based on the polarization approximations for the effective conductivity of isotropic multicomponent materials, we develop some fitting procedures to include more information about the materials, to improve the accuracy of the scheme. The variable reference parameter of the approximation involves a few free scalars, which are determined through the available numerical or experimental values of the macroscopic chloride diffusion coefficient of cement paste or concrete at some volume proportions of the component materials. The various factors that affect the chloride diffusivity of cement-based material (porous material structure, uncertainty of value of the chloride diffusion coefficient in water-saturated pore spaces, etc.) may be accounted to make the predictions more accurate. Illustrations of applications are provided in a number of examples to show the usefulness of the approach.

Key Words
polarization approximation; effective chloride diffusivity; concrete; cement paste; reference parameter

Address
Bao-Viet Tran, Mai-Dinh Loc and Minh-Cuong Le: Construction Engineering Faculty, Research and Application Center for Technology in Civil Engineering, University of Transport and Communications, 03 Cau Giay, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam
Duc-Chinh Pham: Institute of Mechanics, 264 Doi Can, Hanoi, Vietnam


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