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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 2, April 2007
 

Abstract
Applying a direct formulation for the enrichment of the displacement field an extended finite element (XFEM) scheme for modeling of cohesive crack growth is developed. Only elements cut by the crack is enriched and the scheme fits within the framework of standard FEM code. The scheme is implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and the 6-node linear strain triangle (LST). Modeling of standard concrete test cases such as fracture in the notched three point beam bending test (TPBT) and in the four point shear beam test (FPSB) illustrates the performance. The XFEM results show good agreement with results obtained by applying standard interface elements in FEM and with experimental results. In conjunction with criteria for crack growth local versus nonlocal computation of the crack growth direction is discussed.

Key Words
extended finite elements-XFEM; fracture mechanics; cohesive crack growth.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

Abstract
A new model predicting the nonlinear basic creep behaviour of concrete structures subjected to high multi-axial stresses is proposed. It combines a model based on the thermodynamic framework of the elasto-plastic continuum damage theory for time-independent material behaviour and a rheological model describing phenomenologically the long-term delayed deformation. Strength increase due to ageing is regarded. The general 3D solution for the creep theory is derived from a rate-type form of the uniaxial formulation by the assumption of associated creep flow and a theorem of energy equivalence. The model is able to reproduce linear primary creep as well as secondary and tertiary creep stages under high compressive stresses. For concrete in tension a simple viscoelastic formulation is applied. The material law is then incorporated into a finite element solution procedure for analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Numerical examples of uniaxial creep tests and concrete members show excellent agreement with experimental results.

Key Words
concrete; creep; damage; plasticity; finite-element analysis.

Address
ZERNA INGENIEURE, Engineering Consultants, Industriestrabe 27, 44892 Bochum, Germany

Abstract
External bonding of steel or FRP plates to reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been a popular method for strengthening RC structures; however, unexpected premature failure often occurs due to debonding between the concrete and the epoxy. We proposed a Coulomb criterion with a constant failure surface as the debonding failure criterion for the concrete-epoxy interface. Diagonal shear bonding tests were conducted to determine the debonding properties that were related to the failure criterion, such as the angle of internal friction and the coefficient of cohesion. In addition, an interface element that utilized the Coulomb criterion was implemented in a nonlinear finite element analysis program to simulate debonding failure behavior. Experimental studies and numerical analysies on RC beams strengthened by an externally bonded steel or FRP plate were used to determine the range of the coefficient of cohesion. The results that were presented prove that premature failure loads of strengthened RC beams can be predicted with using the bonding properties and the finite element program with including the proposed Coulomb criterion.

Key Words
Coulomb criterion; debonding; interface element; nonlinear finite element analysis premature failure; strengthening.

Address
Jae-Guen Park, Kwang-Myong Lee and Hyun-Mock Shin; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do, 440-746, Korea
Yoon-Je Park; Structural Division, S & Q Engineering Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea

Abstract
Three 3D nonlinear finite-element models are developed to study the behavior of concrete beams and plates with and without external reinforcement by fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP). All three models are formulated based upon the 3D theory of elasticity. The stress model is modified from the element developed by Ramtekkar, et al. (2002) to incorporate material nonlinearity in the formulation. Both transverse stress and displacement components are used as nodal degrees-of-freedom to ensure the continuity of both stress and displacement components between the elements. The displacement model uses only displacement components as nodal degrees-of-freedom. The transition model has both stress and displacement components as nodal degrees-of-freedom on one surface, and only displacement components as nodal degrees-of-freedom on the opposite surface. The transition model serves as a connector between the stress and the displacement models. The developed models are validated by comparing the results of the analyses with an existing experimental result. Parametric studies of the effects of the externally reinforced FRP on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams and concrete plates are performed to demonstrate the practicality and the efficiency of the proposed models.

Key Words
3D nonlinear finite element models; mixed-finite element model; 3D theory of elasticity; nonlinear analysis of RC beams and plates; material nonlinearity; RC beams and plates with and without FRP reinforcement.

Address
M. Hoque, N. Rattanawangcharoen and A. H. Shah; Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 5V6
Y. M. Desai; Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Powai, Mumbai 400076, India

Abstract
The paper considers a theoretical model to study sulfate ion diffusion in saturated porous media - cement based mineral composites, accounting for simultaneous effects, such as filling micro-capillaries (pores) with ions and chemical products and liquid push out of them. Pore volume change and its effect on the distribution of ion concentration within the specimen are investigated. Relations for the distribution of the capillary relative radius and volume within the composite under consideration are found. The numerical algorithm used is further completed to consider capillary size change and the effects accompanying sulfate ion diffusion. Ion distribution within the cross section and volume of specimens fabricated from mineral composites is numerically studied, accounting for the change of material capillary size and volume. Characteristic cases of 2D and 3D diffusion are analyzed. The results found can be used to both assess the sulfate corrosion in saturated systems and predict changes occurring in the pore structure of the composite as a result of sulfate ion diffusion.

Key Words
diffusion; sulfate corrosion; cement paste; porous composite; mathematical model; numerical analysis.

Address
Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bl. 4 G. Bonchev Str., Bulgaria


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