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Volume 1, Number 2, April 2016

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures require advanced analysis techniques for better estimation of their seismic responses, especially in the case of exhibiting complex three-dimensional coupling of torsional and flexural behaviors. This study focuses on validating a numerical approach for evaluating the seismic response of a three-dimensional unsymmetrical RC structure through the participation in the SMART 2013 international benchmark program. The benchmark program provides material properties, detailed drawings of the RC structure, and input ground motions for the seismic response evaluation. In this study, nonlinear constitutive models of concrete and rebar were formed and local tests were conducted to verify the constitutive models in finite element analysis. Elastic calibration of the finite element model of the SMART 2013 RC structure was performed by comparing numerical and experimental results in modal and linear time history analyses. Using the calibrated model, nonlinear earthquake analysis and seismic fragility analysis were performed to estimate the behavior and vulnerability of the RC structure with various ground motions.

Key Words
reinforced concrete structure; time history analysis; seismic vulnerability assessment; SMART 2013 benchmark program

Hyun-Kyu Lim, Jun Won Kang: Department of Civil Engineering, Hongik University, 94 Wausan-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791, Republic of Korea

Young-Geun Lee and Ho-Seok Chi: Department of Structural System & Site Safety Evaluation, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety,
62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338, Republic of Korea

During the last decades, Pendulum Bearings with one or more concave sliding surfaces have been dominating bridge structures. For bridges with relative small lengths, the use of classical pendulum bearings could be a simple and cheaper solution. This work attempts to investigate the effectiveness of such a system, and especially its behavior for the case of a seismic excitation. The results obtained have shown that the classical pendulum bearings are very effective, mainly for bridges with short or intermediate length.

Key Words
dynamics of bridges; pendulum bearings; seismic excitation

National Technical University of Athens, Department of Civil Engineering 9 Iroon Polytechneiou Str., Athens 15780, Greece

Gradient enhanced theories of crystal plasticity enjoy great research interest. The focus of this work is on thermodynamically consistent modeling of grain size dependent hardening effects. In this contribution, we develop a model framework for damage coupled to gradient enhanced crystal thermoplasticity. The damage initiation is directly linked to the accumulated plastic slip. The theoretical setting is that of finite strains. Numerical results on single-crystalline metal showing the development of damage conclude the paper.

Key Words
crystal plasticity; heat conduction; damage; gradient extension; dislocations

Magnus Ekh: Division of Material and Computational Mechanics, Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

Swantje Bargmann: Institute of Continuum Mechanics and Material Mechanics, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany

Swantje Bargmann: Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany

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