The sulfatation of chitosan, by reaction with chlorosulfonic acid under controlled conditions, allowed increasing the pH range of chitosan solubility. The biopolymer was characterized using FTIR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and titration analysis and it was tested for mercury recovery by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF). In slightly alkaline conditions (i.e., pH 8) mercury recovery was possible and at saturation of the polymer the molar ratio –NH2/Hg(II) tended to 2.6. Polymer recycling was possible changing the pH to 2 and the polymer was reused for 3 cycles maintaining high metal recovery. The presence of chloride ions influences metal speciation and affinity for the polymer and
A theoretical study for the flux enhancement by pulsation of transmembrane pressure is presented for osmotic pressure controlled ultrafiltration under laminar flow regime. The transient velocity profile is solved analytically using Green
Treatment and reuse of industrial wastewater is becoming a major goal due to water scarcity. This may be carried out using membrane separation technology in general and reverse osmosis (RO) in particular. In the current study, polyamide (FT-30) membrane was employed for treatment of wastewater
obtained from Faraman industrial zone based in Kermanshah (Iran). The effects of operating conditions such as transmembrane pressure, cross flow velocity, temperature and time on water flux and rejection of impurities including COD by the membrane were elucidated. The aim was an improvement in membrane performance. The results indicate that most of the chemical substances are removed from the wastewater. In particular COD removal was increased from 64 to around 100% as temperature increased from 15 to 45oC. The complete COD removal was obtained at transmembrane pressure of 20 bars and cross flow velocity of 1.5 m/s. The treated wastewater may be reused for various applications including makeup water for cooling towers.
membrane; reverse osmosis; COD; wastewater; industrial water.
Membrane Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
During the disinfection of potable water, humic substances present in the solution react with chlorine to form potential carcinogenic compounds. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor (SMPR) process for treatment of humic substances through the characterization of both organic removal efficiency and membrane hydraulic performance. A simple
SMPR was operated and led to the removal of up to 83% of the polluting humic matters. Temporal rates of organic removal and membrane fouling were found to decrease with filtration time. Using tighter membrane in the hybrid process resulted in not only higher organic removal, but also more significant membrane fouling. Under the experimental conditions tested, optimum TiO2 concentration for humic removal was found to be 0.6 g/L, and increasing initial pollutant concentration expectedly resulted in a
more substantial membrane fouling. The importance of the influent nature and pollutant characteristics in this type of treatment was also assessed as various water sources were tested (model humic acid solution vs. local water containing natural organic matters). Results from this study revealed the promising nature of the SMPR process as an alternative technique for organic removal in the existing water treatment system.