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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 4, October 2013
 

Abstract
The paper presents an experimental set-up for osmotic membrane distillation, which can be operated continuously for several weeks. NaCl solutions were used as an osmotic solution. The influence of osmotic solution concentration on the obtained permeate flux is presented. The experimental set-up was equipped with a system for the regeneration of dilute brine. The regeneration was carried out using a method of natural evaporation to the air surrounding the installation. The evaporation area was created by the Bia

Key Words
osmotic membrane distillation; osmotic solution; OMD pilot plant

Address
West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Institute of Chemical Technology, and Environment Engineering, ul. Pu

Abstract
Ultra-pure water (UPW), a highly treated water free of colloidal material and of a conductivity less than 0.06

Key Words
electrodialysis; ion exchange; electrodeionization; ultra-pure water; cost analysis

Address
(1) Marian Turek, Krzysztof Mitko, Kamila Ciecierska and Piotr Dydo: Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. B. Krzywoustego 6, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland;
(2) Barbara Bandura-Zalska: Bionoco LLC, Ceramiki 41, 41-945 Piekary Śląkie, Poland.

Abstract
The internal reflux effect on dialysis through the retentate phase of a countercurrently cross-flow rectangular module is investigated. Theoretical analysis of mass transfer in cross-flow devices with or without recycling is analogous to heat transfer in cross-flow heat exchangers. In contrast to a device without reflux, considerable mass transfer is achievable if cross-flow dialyzers are operated with reflux, which provides an increase in fluid velocity, resulting in a reduction in mass-transfer resistance. It is concluded that reflux can enhance mass transfer, especially for large flow rate and feed-concentration operated under high reflux ratio.

Key Words
dialysis; cross flow; countercurrently internal recycle; rectangular module

Address
Ho-Ming Yeh and Chien-Yu Chen: Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei County, 251, Taiwan.

Abstract
China is one of the countries with the highest reserves of coal bed methane (CBM) in the world. Likewise, the CBM industry is significantly growing in China. However, activities related to CBM development have led to more environmental problems, which include serious environmental damage and pollution caused by CBM-produced water. In this paper, the detailed characteristics of CBM-produced water in the southern Qinshui Basin were investigated and analyzed and compared with local surface water and coal mine drainage. Most of CBM-produced water samples are contaminated by higher concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS), K (Potassium), Na (Sodium) and NH4. The alkalinity of the water from coalmines and CBM production was higher than that of the local surface water. The concentrations of some trace elements such as P (Phosphorus), Ti (Titanium), V (Vanadium), Cr (Chromium), Ni (Nickel), Zn (Zinc), Ge (Germanium), As (Arsenic), Rb (Rubidium), and Pd (Palladium) in water from the coalmines and CBM production are higher than the acceptable standard limits. The

Key Words
coal bed methane; produced water; stable isotope; geochemical characteristics; Qinshui Basin

Address
(1) Jienan Pan, Xiaomin Zhang, Yanqing Zhao and Heling Bai: School of Resources & Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China;
(2) Yiwen Ju: College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
(3) Jienan Pan and Yiwen Ju: Key Lab of Computational Geodynamics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Abstract
The transport and recovery of Levafix brilliant red E-4BA and Levafix brilliant red E-6BA were investigated using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fiber based supported liquid membrane containing tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in coconut oil as a carrier. The influencing parameters studied are: pH of the feed solution, concentration of dye in the feed solution, extractant concentration, and various kind of stripping agent, rate of stirring, time of transport, reusability of membrane and stability of membrane. Increase in TBAB concentration inside the membrane enhances the flux with its maximum value at 1.553

Key Words
bipolar membrane; dry-out; current-voltage curve; electro-osmosis; water absorption

Address
G. Muthuraman, M. Sathya, M. Soniya and S. Elumalai: University of Madras, Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005, India.


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