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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 2, April 2014
 

Abstract
Membrane fouling is a major challenge limiting the use of membrane applications. In this study high induced shear rates were utilized at the membrane surface in order to reduce the organic and inorganic scaling by using the torsional vibration of flat sheet membranes. The performances of a vibratory shear-enhanced processing (VSEP) system for the ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration of industrial dairy wastewater were investigated. The vibration and non-vibration methods were compared with the same membrane and operational parameters during the purification of real dairy industrial process wastewater. In the initial experiments, short-term tests were carried out in which the effects of vibration amplitude, recirculation flow rate and transmembrane pressure were measured and compared. The permeate flux, turbidity, conductivity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of dairy wastewater were investigated by using UF, NF and RO membranes with vibration and non-vibration methods. In the subsequent experiments, concentration tests were also carried out. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the vibration method gave a better performance, which can be attributed to the higher membrane shear rate, which reduces the concentration of solids at the membrane, and the transmission.

Key Words
shear-enhanced membrane filtration; VSEP; dairy wastewater; membrane fouling; SEM pictures

Address
Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Szeged, H-6725 Szeged, Moszkvai krt. 9., Hungary.

Abstract
Electrodeionization (EDI), which combines electrodialysis (ED) and conventional ion-exchange (IX), is a mature process which has been applied since more than twenty years on commercial use for the production of ultrapure water (UPW). Eliminating chemical regeneration is the main reason for its commercial success. The increase in acceptance of EDI technology has led to an installation of very large plant as the commercial state of the art that produces 1,500 m3/h of water for high pressure steam boiler. More recently, EDI system has found a number of new interesting applications in wastewater treatment, biotechnology industry, and other potential field. Along with further growth and wider applications, the development of stack construction and configuration are also become a concern. In this paper, the principle of EDI process is described and its recent developments, commercial scale, and various applications are pointed out.

Key Words
electrodeionization; electrodialysis; ion exchange resin; ultra pure water; ion exchange membrane

Address
Department of Chemical Engineering, ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia.

Abstract
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane is widely used for water treatment. However, the weak mechanical strength of PVDF limits its application. To enhance its tensile strength, a double-layer composite hollow fiber membrane, with PVDF and polyetherimide as the external and inner layers, respectively, was successfully prepared through phase inversion technique. The effects of additive content, air gap distance, N,N-dimethyl-acetamide content in the inner core liquid, and the temperature of external coagulation bath on the membrane structure, permeation flux, rejection, tensile strength, and porosity were determined. Experimental results showed that the optimum preparation conditions for the double-layer composite hollow fiber membrane were as follows: PEG-400 and PEG-600, 5 wt%; air gap distance, 10 cm; inner core liquid and the external coagulation bath should be water; and temperature of the external coagulation bath, 40 C. A single layer PVDF hollow fiber membrane (without PEI layer) was also prepared under optimum conditions. The double-layer composite membrane remarkably improved the tensile strength compared with the single-layer PVDF hollow fiber membrane. The permeation flux, rejection, and porosity were also slightly enhanced. High-tensile strength hollow fiber PVDF ultrafiltration membrane can be fabricated using the proposed technique.

Key Words
PVDF; PEI; ultrafiltration; tensile strength

Address
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, PR China.

Abstract
Safe water has becoming a competitive resource in many parts of the world due to increasing population, prolonged droughts, climate change etc. The development of economical and stable materials and methods for providing the fresh water in adequate amounts is the need of the water industry. Nanomaterials have unique characteristics e.g., large surface areas, size, shape, and dimensions etc. that make them particularly attractive for removing various contaminants from polluted waters. Nanotechnology based multifunctional and highly efficient membrane processes are providing affordable solutions in the new era that do not rely on large infrastructures or centralizes systems. The objective of the current study is to review the possible applications of the membrane based nanomaterials/composites for the removal of various contaminations from polluted waters. The article will briefly overview the availability and practice of different nanomaterials based membranes for removal of bacteria and viruses, organic compounds and inorganic solutes etc. present in surface water, ground water, seawater and/or industrial water. Finally, recommendations are made based on the current practices of nanofiltration membranes in water industry for a stand-alone membrane filtration system in removing various types of contaminants from polluted waters.

Key Words
contaminants; economical; nanofiltration; membranes; stand-alone

Address
Alamoudi Water Research Chair, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract
This paper focuses on the study of the most recent ultra-filtration techniques, based on porous polymer membranes, used for the treatment of wastewater from oil, mine and hydrometallurgical industries. The performance of porous membranes used in separation and recovery of oil and heavy metals from wastewater, was evaluated by the polymer composition and by the membrane characteristics, as it follows: hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, porosity, carrier (composition and concentration), selectivity, fouling, durability, separation efficiency and operating conditions. The oil/water efficient separation was observed on ultra-filtration (UF) techniques, with porous membranes, whereas heavy metals recovery from wastewater was observed using porous membranes with carrier. It can be concluded, that in the ultra-filtration wastewater treatments, a hybrid system, with porous polymer membranes with or without carrier, can be used for these two applications: oil/water separation and heavy metals recovery.

Key Words
ultra-filtration; membranes; polymers; separations; wastewater treatment

Address
(1) Larisa Melita, Marin Amăeanu:
Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, 122-124, Blvd. Lacul Tei, Sector 2, Bucharest, Romania;
(2) Fevzi Gümrah:
Heavy Oil and Oils Sands Department, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Canada; Present address: Bahar Energy Operating Company, Baku, Azerbaijan.


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