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CONTENTS
Volume 6, Number 3, May 2015
 

Abstract
The goal of present work is the preparation of a novel positively charged nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its development for the cation removal of aqueous solutions. This NF membrane was fabricated by the surface modification of polysulfone (PSf) ultrafiltration support. The active top-layer was formed by interfacial cross-linking polymerization of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) with p-xylylene dichloride (XDC) and then quaternized with methyl iodide to form a perpetually positively charged layer. In order to improve the efficiency of nanofiltration membrane, the concentration of PEI, XDC and methyl iodide solutions, PEI coating and cross-linking time have been optimized. As a result, a high water flux and high CaCl2 rejection (1,000 ppm) was obtained for the composite membrane with values of 18.29 L/m2.h and 93.62% at 4 bar and 25°C, respectively. The rejections of NF membrane for different salt solutions followed the order of Na2SO4 < MgSO4 < NaCl < CaCl2. Molecular weight of cut off (MWCO) was calculated via retaining of PEG solutions with different molecular weights that finally, it revealed the Stokes and hydrodynamic radius of 1.457 and 2.507 nm on the membrane selective layer, respectively. The most efficient positively charged nanofiltration membrane exhibited a Ni2+ rejection of 96.26% for industrial wastewater from Shamse Hadaf Co. (Kashan, Iran).

Key Words
cross-linking; nanofiltration; poly (ethyleneimine); polysulfone; positively charged membrane

Address
(1) Arash Yunessnia lehi, Ahmad Akbari, Hosna Soleimani:
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran;
(2) Ahmad Akbari:
Department of Carpet, Faculty of Architecture & Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

Abstract
Membrane biofouling impedes wide application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. Recently, quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms are accounted for one of major mechanisms in biofouling of MBRs. In this study, vanillin was applied to investigate reduction of biofouling in MBRs. MBR sludge was analyzed to contain QS signal molecules by cross-feeding biosensor assay and HPLC. In addition, the inhibitory activity of vanillin against bacterial quorum sensing was verified using an indicator strain CV026. The vanillin doses greater than 125 mg/L to 100 mL of MBR sludge showed 25% reduction of biofilm formed on the membrane surfaces. Two MBRs, i.e., a typical MBR as a control and an MBR with vanillin, were operated. The TMP increases of the control MBR were more rapid compared to those of the MBR with the vanillin dose of 250 mg/L. The treatment efficiencies of the two MBRs on organic removal and MLSS were maintained relatively constant. Extracellular polymeric substance concentrations measured at the end of the MBR operation were 173 mg/g biocake for the control MBR and 119 mg/g biocake for the MBR with vanillin. Vanillin shows great potential as an anti-biofouling agent for MBRs without any interference on microbial activity for wastewater treatment.

Key Words
vanillin; biofouling; quorum sensing; EPS; MBR

Address
(1) AnNa Nam, JiHyang Kweon, JunHee Ryu, Harshad Lade:
Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, #1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, Korea;
(2) ChungHak Lee:
School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Korea.

Abstract
A novel hydrophilic poly (vinylidene fluoride)/poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PVDF/PPTA) blend membrane was prepared by in situ polycondensation of p-phenylene diamine (PPD) and terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) in PVDF solution with subsequent nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process. For comparison, conventional solution blend membrane was prepared directly by adding PVDF powder into PPTA polycondensation solution. Blend membranes were characterized by means of viscometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The effects of different blending methods on membrane performance including water contact angle (WCA), mechanical strength, anti-fouling and anti-compression properties were investigated and compared. Stronger interactions between PVDF and PPTA in in situ blend membranes were verified by viscosity and XPS analysis. The incorporation of PPTA accelerated the demixing rate and caused the formation of a more porous structure in blend membranes. In situ blend membranes exhibited better hydrophilicity and higher tensile strength. The optimal values of WCA and tensile strength were 65° and 34.1 MPa, which were reduced by 26.1% and increased by 26.3% compared with pure PVDF membrane. Additionally, antifouling properties of in situ blend membranes were greatly improved than pure PVDF membrane with an increasing of flux recovery ratio by 25%. Excellent anti-compression properties were obtained in in situ blend membranes with a stable pore morphology. The correlations among membrane formation mechanism, structure and performance were also discussed.

Key Words
in situ polycondensation; PVDF membrane; PPTA; hydrophilicity; mechanical strength; anti-fouling; anti-compression

Address
(1) Hongbin Li, Wenying Shi, Rong Zhou:
School of Textiles Engineering, Henan Institute of Engineering, Zhengzhou, 450007, P.R. China;
(2) Yufeng Zhang:
State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, P.R. China.

Abstract
During low-pressure membrane treatments of cyanobacterial cells, including microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF), there have reportedly been releases of intracellular compounds including cyanotoxins and compounds with an earthy-musty odor into the water, probably owing to cyanobacterial cell breakage retained on the membrane. However, to our knowledge, no information was reported regarding the effect of growth phase of cyanobacterial cells on the release of the intracellular compounds. In the present study, we used a geosmin-producing cyanobacterium, Anabaena smithii, to investigate the effect of the growth phase of the cyanobacterium on the release of intracellular geosmin during laboratory-scale MF experiments with the cells in either the logarithmic growth or stationary phase. Separate detection of damaged and intact cells revealed that the extent of cell breakage on the MF membrane was almost the same for logarithmic growth and stationary phase cells. However, whereas the geosmin concentration in the MF permeate increased after 3 h of filtration with cells in the logarithmic growth phase, it did not increase during filtration with cells in the stationary phase: the trend in the geosmin concentration in the MF permeate with time was much different between the logarithmic growth and stationary phases. Adsorption of geosmin to algogenic organic matter (AOM) retained on the MF membrane and/or pore blocking with the AOM were greater when the cells were in the stationary phase versus the logarithmic growth phase, the result being a decrease in the apparent release of intracellular geosmin from the stationary phase cells. In actual drinking water treatment plants employing membrane processes, more attention should be paid to the cyanobacterial cells in logarithmic growth phase than in stationary phase from a viewpoint of preventing the leakage of intracellular earthy-musty odor compounds to finished water.

Key Words
algogenic organic matters; Anabaena; earthy-musty odor; logarithmic growth phase; stationary phase

Address
Division of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan.

Abstract
In this study we investigate a laboratory scale vacuum membrane distillation system to produce pure water from model oil in water emulsion. Experimental determination of liquid entry pressure (LEP) of a commercial DuraporeTM GVPH flat sheet membrane using model emulsions in various oil concentrations has been carried out. Two different methods of liquid entry pressure determination - a frequently used, so-called static and a novel dynamic method - have been investigated. In case of static method, LEP value was found to be 2.3 bar. No significant effect of oil content on LEP was detected up to 3200 ppm. In contrast, LEP values determined with dynamic method showed strong dependence on the oil concentration of the feed and decreased from 2.0 bar to a spontaneous wetting at 0.2 bar in the range 0-250 ppm, respectively. Vacuum membrane distillation tests were also performed. The separation performance is evaluated in terms of flux behavior, total organic carbon removal and droplet size distribution of the feed and final retentate. No significant effect of oil content on the flux was found (5.05 ± 0.31 kgm-2h-1) up to 250 ppm, where a spontaneous wetting occurred. High separation performance was achieved along with the increasing oil concentration between 93.4-97.0%.

Key Words
liquid entry pressure; wetting phenomenon; wetted membranes, vacuum membrane; distillation; oil in water emulsion; produced water purification

Address
(1) Gábor Rácz, Zoltán Kovács, Gyula Vatai:
Department of Food Engineering, Corvinus University of Budapest, 44 Menesi street, Budapest H-1118, Hungary;
(2) Steffen Kerker, Oliver Schmitz, Benjamin Schnabel, Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Peter Czermak:
Institute of Bioprocess Engineering and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen, Giessen, Germany;
(3) Peter Czermak:
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA.

Abstract
In this work the preparation and characterization of a membrane containing a uniform mesoporous Titanium oxide top layer on a porous stainless steel substrate has been studied. The 316 L stainless steel substrate was prepared by powder metallurgy technique and modified by soaking-rolling and fast drying method. The mesoporous titania membrane was fabricated via the sol-gel method. Morphological studies were performed on both supported and unsupported membranes using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and field emission scanning microscope (FESEM). The membranes were also characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 - adsorption / desorption measurement (BET analyses)- It was revealed that a defect-free anatase membrane with a thickness of 1.6 μm and 4.3 nm average pore size can be produced. In order to evaluate the performance of the supported membrane, single - gas permeation experiments were carried out at room temperature with nitrogen gas. The permeability coefficient of the fabricated membrane was 4 × 10-8 lit s-1 Pa-1 cm-1.

Key Words
titania membrane; stain- less steel substrate; single-gas permeation; sol-gel

Address
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Hafez Street, Tehran, Iran.



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