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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 1, January 2017
 

Abstract
In this study, reuse of biologically treated wastewater of denim washing and dyeing industry has been evaluated by membrane technologies. After that experiments were carried out at laboratory scale in textile dyeing unit by using obtained permeate water samples on 100% cotton based raw fabric belonging to examined industry. During membrane experiments, two different UF (UC100 and UC030) and two different NF (NP010 and NP030) were evaluated under alternative membrane pressures. In permeate water obtained on selected samples, conductivity at the range of 1860-2205 uS/cm, hardness at the range of 60 to 80 mg/L, total color at the range of 2.4 to 7.6 m-1 and COD at the range of 25-32 mg/L was determined. The following analyzes were performed for the dyed fabrics: perspiration fastness, rub fastness, wash fastness, color fastness to water, color fastness to artificial light, color measurement through the fabric. According to analysis results, selected permeate water have no negative impact on dyeing quality. The study showed that membrane filtration gave good performance for biologically treated textile wastewater, and NF treatment with UF pre-treatment was suitable option for reuse of the effluents.

Key Words
cabric dyeing; nanofiltration; reuse; textile industry; ultrafiltration

Address
Gul Kaykioglu, Reyhan Ata, Gunay Yildiz Tore: Faculty of Corlu Engineering, Department of Environmental Enginering, Namik Kemal University, 59860, Corlu-Tekirdag, TURKEY
Ahmet Ozgur Agirgan: Faculty of Corlu Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering, Namik Kemal University, 59860, Corlu-Tekirdag, TURKEY

Abstract
Boron exists in dilute concentrations in sea water, ground water and waste waters. Reactive liquid extraction can be used for removing boron to make the treated water suitable for drinking and irrigation, with its final concentration less than 0.5 ppm. The results of equilibrium experiments are reported on the removal of boron using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1, 3-propanediol (BEPD as a nonionic carrier) in sunflower oil, a non-traditional solvent. The results of removal of boron from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 0.5-20 ppm are presented. It is shown that this new liquid membrane system, is able to remove boron from ground waters at their natural pH of 6-8 (without any chemical addition for pH adjustments). The removal efficiency is good when the process is upgraded to a hollowfibre membrane contactor and approximately 45% boron can be removed in a single-stage contact. There are additional advantages of this new approach that includes reduced operational health and safety and environmental issues. The results reported here provide guidelines to the development of boron removal process using renewable, biodegradable, safe and cheap solvent system such as sunflower oil.

Key Words
boron removal; sunflower oil; organic phase; seawater; hollow-fibre membrane contactor

Address
Md. M. Hossain:Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 15551, Al Ain, UAE
M.A. Maraqa:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UAE University, UAE

Abstract
The theoretical membrane gas absorption module treatments in a hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactor using Happel\'s free surface model were obtained under countercurrent-flow operations. The analytical solutions were obtained using the separated variable method with an orthogonal expansion technique extended in power series. The CO2 concentration in the liquid absorbent, total absorption rate and absorption efficiency were calculated theoretically and experimentally with the liquid absorbent flow rate, gas feed flow rate and initial CO2 concentration in the gas feed as parameters. The improvements in device performance under countercurrent-flow operations to increase the absorption efficiency in a carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas feed mixture using a pure water liquid absorbent were achieved and compared with those in the concurrent-flow operation. Both good qualitative and quantitative agreements were achieved between the experimental results and theoretical predictions for countercurrent flow in a hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactor with accuracy of 6.62x10-2<-E<-8.98x10-2.

Key Words
countercurrent flow; membrane gas absorption; hollow fiber module; conjugated Graetz problem

Address
Chii-Dong Ho, Yun-Jen Sung, Wei-Ting Chen and Feng-Chi Tsai:Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New Taipei, 251, Taiwan

Abstract
Antimicrobial polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes containing zerovalent iron (Fe0) and magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized via phase inversion method using polyethersulfone (PES) as membrane material and nano-iron as nanoparticle materials. Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) were prepared by the reduction of iron ions with borohydride applying an inert atmosphere by using N2 gases. The magnetite nanoparticles (nMag) were prepared via co-precipitation method by adding a base to an aqueous mixture of Fe3+ and Fe2+ salts. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and dynamic light scattering analysis. Moreover, the properties of the synthesized membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The PES membranes containing the nZVI or nMag were examined for antimicrobial characteristics. Moreover, amount of iron run away from the PES composite membranes during the dead-end filtration were tested. The results showed that the permeation flux of the composite membranes was higher than the pristine PES membrane. The membranes containing nano-iron showed good antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The composite membranes can be successfully used for the domestic wastewater filtration to reduce membrane biofouling.

Key Words
zerovalent iron nanoparticles; magnetite nanoparticles; polyethersulfone membrane; phase inversion; antimicrobial membrane

Address
Nadir Dizge, Yasin Ozay, H. Elif Gulsen, Ceyhun Akarsu, Ali Unyayar:Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, 33343 Yenisehir, Mersin, Turkey
U. Bulut Simsek:Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin University, 33343 Yenisehir, Mersin, Turkey
Meral Turabik :Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin University, 33343 Yenisehir, Mersin, Turkey/Department of Chemical Programme Technical Science Vocational School, Mersin University,
33343 Yenisehir, Mersin, Turkey
Kasim Ocakoglu:Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Mersin University, 33480 Mersin, Turkey

Abstract
Adsorption kinetics of aqueous ferric ion (Fe3+) onto bio-natural rice grains (BRG) have been studied in a batch system. The influence of contact time (0-180 minutes), the dosage of BRG adsorbent (10, 20, 40, and 60 g L-1), and ambient temperature (27, 37, 47, and 57oC) for the adsorption system have been reported. The equilibrium time achieved after 20 minutes of adsorption contact time. The maximum removal of ferric ion is 99% by using 60 gL-1 of BRG, T=37oC, and 50 mg L-1 ferric ion solution. Adsorption kinetic and diffusion models, such as pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and Weber-Morris intra-particle diffusion model, have been used to describe the adsorption rate and mechanism of the ferric ion onto BRG surface. The sorption data results are fitted by Lagergren pseudo-second order model (R2=1.0). The kinetic parameters, rate constant, and sorption capacities have been calculated. The new information in this study suggests that BRG could adsorb ferric ion from water physiosorption during the first 5 minutes. Afterward, the electrostatic interaction between ferric ion and BGR-surface could take place as a very weak chemisorptions process. Thus, there is no significant change could be noticed in the FTIR spectra after adsorption. I recommend producing BGR as a bio-natural filtering material for removing the ferric ion from water.

Key Words
ferric ion; bio-natural rice; adsorption; pseudo-second order; kinetic

Address
Mohammed A. Al-Anber:Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mu\'tah University, P.O. Box 7, 61710-Al-Kark, Jordan

Abstract
Dyeing wastewaters are the most problematic wastewater in textile industries and also, growing amounts of waste fibers in carpet industries have concerned environmental specialists. Among different treatment methods, membrane filtration processes as energy-efficient and compatible way, were utilized for several individual problems. In this research, novel hybrid membranes were prepared by waste fibers of mechanical carpets as useful resource of membrane matrix and industrial graphite powder as filler to eliminate Chrysophenine GX from dyeing wastewater. These membranes were expected to be utilized for first stage of hybrid membrane filtration process including (adsorption-ultrafiltration) and nanofiltration in Kashan Textile Company. For scaling of membrane filtration process, fouling mechanism of these membranes were recognized and explained by the use of genetic algorithm, as well. The graphite increased rejection and diminished permeate flux at low concentration but in high concentration, the performance was significantly worsened. Among all hybrid membranes, 18% wt. waste fibers-1% wt. graphite membrane had the best performance and minimum fouling. The maximum pore size of this optimum membrane was ranged from 16.10 to 18.72 nm

Key Words
chrysophenine GX; fouling mechanisms; genetic algorithm; hybrid membranes; wastage fibers

Address
Arash Yunessnia lehi:Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan, Iran
Seyed Jalaleddin Mousavirad:Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Computer & Electrical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Ahmad Akbari:Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan, Iran/Department of Carpet, Faculty of Architecture & Art, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran


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