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CONTENTS
Volume 3, Number 4, December 2013
 

Abstract
Top tensioned riser (TTR) is often used in a floating oil/gas production system deployed in deep water for oil/gas transport. This study focuses on the extension of the existing numerical code, known as CABLE3D, to allow for static and dynamic simulation of a TTR connected to a floating structure through a tensioner system or buoyancy can, and restrained by riser guides at different elevations. A tensioner system usually consists of three to six cylindrical tensioners. Although the stiffness of individual tensioner is assumed to be linear, the resultant stiffness of a tensioner system may be nonlinear. The vertical friction between a TTR and the hull at its riser guide is neglected assuming rollers are installed there. Near the water surface, a TTR is forced to move horizontally due to the motion of the upper deck of a floating structure as well as related riser guides. The extended CABLE3D is then integrated into a numerical code, known as COUPLE, for the simulation of the dynamic interaction among the hull of a floating structure, such as spar or TLP, its mooring system and riser system under the impact of wind, current and waves. To demonstrate the application of the extended CABLE3D and its integration with COUPLE, the numerical simulation is made for a truss spar under the impact of Hurricane \"Ike\". The mooring system of the spar consists of nine mooring lines and the riser system consists of six TTRs and two steel catenary risers (SCRs).

Key Words
dynamic simulation; top tensioned riser; tensioner; riser guide; cable3D; COUPLE

Address
Han Huang : Offshore Engineering Department, American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, TX, USA
Jun Zhang and Liyun Zhu : Ocean Engineering Program, Civil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Abstract
Side-by-side offloading operations are widely utilized in engineering practice. The hydrodynamic interactions between two vessels play a crucial role in safe operation. This study focuses on the coupled effects between two floating bodies positioned side-by-side as a shuttle tanker-FPSO (floating production, storage and offloading) system. Several wave directions with different side-by-side distances are studied in order to obtain the variation tendency of the horizontal hydrodynamic coefficients, motion responses and mean drift forces. It is obtained that the coupled hydrodynamics between two vessels is evidently distinguished from the single body case with shielding and exaggerating effects, especially for sway and yaw directions. The resonance frequency and the peak amplitude are closely related with side-by-side separation distance. In addition, the horizontal hydrodynamics of the shuttle tanker is more susceptible to coupled effects in beam waves. It is suggested to expand the gap distance reasonably in order to reduce the coupled drift forces effectively. Attention should also be paid to the second peaks caused by hydrodynamic coupling. Since the horizontal mean drift forces are the most mainly concerned forces to be counteracted in dynamic positioning (DP) system and mooring system, prudent prediction is beneficial in saving consumed power of DP system and reducing tension of mooring lines.

Key Words
hydrodynamic coupling; side-by-side offloading; horizontal motion; wave drift force; middle-field method; dynamic positioning

Address
Hong-Chao Wang and Lei Wang : State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

Abstract
More FOWTs (floating offshore wind turbines) will be installed as relevant regulations and technological hurdles are removed in the coming years. In the present study, a numerical prediction tool has been developed for the fully coupled dynamic analysis of FOWTs in time domain including aero-loading, tower elasticity, blade-rotor dynamics and control, mooring dynamics, and platform motions so that the influence of rotor-control dynamics on the hull-mooring performance and vice versa can be assessed. The developed coupled analysis program is applied to Hywind spar design with 5 MW turbine. In case of spar-type floaters, the control strategy significantly influences the hull and mooring dynamics. If one of the control systems fails, the entire dynamic responses of FOWT can be significantly different. Therefore, it is important to maintain various control systems in a good operational condition. In this regard, the effects of failed blade pitch control system on FOWT performance including structural and dynamic responses of blades, tower, and floater are systematically investigated. Through this study, it is seen that the failure of one of the blade pitch control system can induce significant dynamic loadings on the other blades and the entire FOWT system. The developed technology and numerical tool are readily applicable to any types of floating wind farms in any combinations of irregular waves, dynamic winds, and steady currents.

Key Words
floating wind turbine; spar type; simulation; aero-elastic-control-floater-mooring coupled dynamics; blade-pitch-control failure; blade/tower/platform responses; structural health monitoring

Address
Yoon Hyeok Baeand Moo-Hyun Kim : Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Abstract
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems utilize the temperature difference between the surface water and deep ocean water to generate electrical energy. In addition to ocean surface waves, wind and current, in certain locations like the Andaman Sea, Sulu Sea and the South China Sea the presence of strong internal waves may become a concern in floating OTEC system design. The current paper focuses on studying the dependence of the CWP hydrodynamic drag on relative velocity of the flow around the pipe, the effect of drag amplification due to vortex induced vibrations and the influence of internal waves on the floating semi and the cold water pipe integrated OTEC system. Two CWP sizes are modeled; the 4m diameter pipe represents a small scale prototype and the 10m diameter pipe represents a full commercial size CWP. are considered in the study.

Key Words
Internal wave; OTEC System; Cold Water Pipe(CWP)

Address
Shan Shi and Nishu V Kurup : Houston Offshore Engineering, Houston, Texas 77079, USA
John Halkyard : John Halkyard and Associates, Houston, Texas 77079, USA
Lei Jiang: Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Texas 77843, USA

Abstract
An Oscillating Water Column (OWC) is a relatively practical and convenient device that converts wave energy to a usable form, which is electricity. The OWC is kept inside a fixed truncated vertical cylinder, which is a hollow structure with one open end submerged in the water and with an air turbine at the top. This research adopts potential theory and Galerkin methods to solve the fluid motion inside the OWC. Using an air-water interaction model, OWC design for energy extraction from regular wave is also explored. The hydrodynamic coefficients of the scattering and radiation potentials are solved for using the Galerkin approximation. The numerical results for the free surface elevation have been verified by a series of experiments conducted in the University of New Orleans towing tank. The effect of varying geometric parameters on the response amplitude operator (RAO) of the OWC is studied and modification of the equation for evaluating the natural frequency of the OWC is made. Using the model of air-water interaction under certain wave parameters and OWC geometric parameters, a computer program is developed to calculate the energy output from the system.

Key Words
oscillating water column; Galerkin approximation; natural frequency; wave height; turbine constant; truncated vertical cylinder

Address
Hao Wang and Jeffrey M. Falzarano : Ocean Engineering Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA


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