This paper presents a new approach for underwater image analysis using the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) technique and the phase congruency information. The BEMD algorithm, fully unsupervised, it is mainly applied to texture extraction and image filtering, which are widely recognized as a difficult and challenging machine vision problem. The phase information is the very stability feature of image. Recent developments in analysis methods on the phase congruency information have received large attention by the image researchers. In this paper, the proposed method is called the EP model that inherits the advantages of the first two algorithms, so this model is suitable for processing underwater image. Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is presented in this paper to solve the problem that the threshold is greatly affected by personal experience when underwater image edge detection is performed using the EP model. The EP images are computed using combinations of the Canny detector parameters, and the binaryzation image results are generated accordingly. The ideal EP edge feature extractive maps are estimated using correspondence threshold which is optimized by ROC analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to avoid the operation error caused by manual setting of the detection threshold, and to adaptively set the image feature detection threshold. The proposed method has been proved to be accuracy and effectiveness by the underwater image processing examples.
Tension Leg Platform (TLP) is a floating structure that consists of four columns with large diameter. The diffraction theory is used to calculate the wave force of floating structures with large dimensions (TLP). In this study, the diffraction and Froude-Krylov wave forces of TLP for surge, sway and heave motions and wave force moment for roll, pitch degrees of freedom in different wave periods and three wave approach angles have been investigated. From the numerical results, it can be concluded that the wave force for different wave approach angle is different. There are some humps and hollows in the curve of wave forces and moment in different wave periods (different wavelengths). When wave incidents with angle 0 degree, the moment of diffraction force for pitch in high wave periods (low frequencies) is dominant. The diffraction force for heave in low wave periods (high wave frequencies) is dominant. The phase difference between Froude-Krylov and diffraction forces is important to obtain total wave force.
TLP; hydrodynamic; wave forces; diffraction; Froude-Krylov; phase difference
Ebrahim Malayjerdi : Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Reza Tabeshpou: Mechanical Engineering Department, Center of Excellence in Hydrodynamics and
Dynamics of Marine Vehicles, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
The iterative boundary element method (IBEM) developed originally before for cavitating two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) hydrofoils moving under free surface is modified and applied to the case of 2-D (two-dimensional) airfoils and 3-D (three-dimensional) wings over water. The calculation of the steady-state flow characteristics of an inviscid, incompressible fluid past 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings above free water surface is of practical importance for air-assisted marine vehicles such as some racing boats including catamarans with hydrofoils and WIG (Wing-In-Ground) effect crafts. In the present paper, the effects of free surface both on 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings moving steadily over free water surface are investigated in detail. The iterative numerical method (IBEM) based on the Green\'s theorem allows separating the airfoil or wing problems and the free surface problem. Both the 2-D airfoil surface (or 3-D wing surface) and the free surface are modeled with constant strength dipole and constant strength source panels. While the kinematic boundary condition is applied on the airfoil surface or on the wing surface, the linearized kinematic-dynamic combined condition is applied on the free surface. The source strengths on the free surface are expressed in terms of perturbation potential by applying the linearized free surface conditions. No radiation condition is enforced for downstream boundary in 2-D airfoil and 3-D wing cases and transverse boundaries in only 3-D wing case. The method is first applied to 2-D NACA0004 airfoil with angle of attack of four degrees to validate the method. The effects of height of 2-D airfoil from free surface and Froude number on lift and drag coefficients are investigated. The method is also applied to NACA0015 airfoil for another validation with experiments in case of ground effect. The lift coefficient with different clearance values are compared with those of experiments. The numerical method is then applied to NACA0012 airfoil with the angle of attack of five degrees and the effects of Froude number and clearance on the lift and drag coefficients are discussed. The method is lastly applied to a rectangular 3-D wing and the effects of Froude number on wing performance have been investigated. The numerical results for wing moving under free surface have also been compared with those of the same wing moving above free surface. It has been found that the free surface can affect the wing performance significantly.
WIG (Wing-In-Ground); airfoil, wing; iterative boundary element method; free surface; wave drag; lift
Sakir Bal: Istanbul Technical University, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, 34469 Maslak-Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey
The change of the global performance of a turret-moored FPSO (Floating Production Storage Offloading) with DP (Dynamic Positioning) control is simulated, analyzed, and compared for two different internal turret location cases; bow and midship. Both collinear and non-collinear 100-yr GOM (Gulf of Mexico) storm environments and three cases (mooring-only, with DP position control, with DP position+heading control) are considered. The horizontal trajectory, 6DOF (degree of freedom) motions, fairlead mooring and riser tension, and fuel consumptions are compared. The PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller based on LQR (linear quadratic regulator) theory and the thrust-allocation algorithm which is based on the penalty optimization theory are implemented in the fully-coupled time-domain hull-mooring-riser-DP simulation program. Both in collinear and non-collinear 100-yr WWC (wind-wave-current) environments, the advantage of mid-ship turret is demonstrated by the significant reduction in heave at the turret location due to the minimal coupling with pitch mode, which is beneficial to mooring and riser design. However, in the non-collinear WWC environment, the mid-turret case exhibits unfavorable weathervaning characteristics, which can be reduced by employing DP position and heading controls as demonstrated in the present case studies. The present study also reveals the plausible cause of the failure of mid-turret Gryphon Alpha FPSO in milder environment than its survival condition.
With more than 100 years exploration and development of offshore oil, more and more offshore oil fields will gradually lose the economic profit to operate. In this article, to take the target oil field for example, the procedure of decommissioning for FPSO, TCMS, subsea system and well abandonment have been analyzed. Meanwhile, the environment impact and mitigation measure have been proposed. The successful project experience will provide a guide line for the offshore facilities decommissioning and abandonment.
FPSO; TCMS; decommissioning; well abandonment; economic limit
Lu Guihua and Xiao Jianjun: School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) Beijing, P.R. China
Li Hongsheng: Sinochem Petroleum Exploration and Production CO.LTD, P.R. China
Li Zhihao: School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) Beijing, P.R. China
Xu Minhang: CNOOC Research Institute, P.R. China