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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 2, March 2011
 

Abstract
Flange and web local buckling in beam plastic hinge regions of steel moment frames can prevent beam-column connections from achieving adequate plastic rotations under earthquake-induced forces. This threat is especially valid for existing steel moment frame buildings with beams that lack adequate flange/web slenderness ratios. As the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) have increased in strengthening and repair of steel members in recent years, using FRPs in stabilizing local instabilities have also attracted attention. Previous computational studies have shown that longitudinally oriented glass FRP (GFRP) strips may serve to moderately brace beam flanges against the occurrence of local buckling during plastic hinging. An experimental study was conducted at Izmir Institute of Technology investigating the effects of GFRP reinforcement on local buckling behavior of existing steel I-beams with flange slenderness ratios (FSR) exceeding the slenderness limits set forth in current seismic design specifications and modified by a bottom flange triangular welded haunch. Four European HE400AA steel beams with a depth/width ratio of 1.26 and FSR of 11.4 were cyclically loaded up to 4% rotation in a cantilever beam test set-up. Both bare beams and beams with GFRP sheets were tested in order to investigate the contribution of GFRP sheets in mitigating local flange buckling. Different configurations of GFRP sheets were considered. The tests have shown that GFRP reinforcement can moderately mitigate inelastic flange local buckling.

Key Words
existing steel buildings; plastic local buckling, glass fiber reinforced polymers

Address
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Izmir Inst. of Technology, Izmir, Turkey


Abstract
Considering the randomness of material parameters in the laminated composite plate, a scheme of stochastic finite element method to analyze the displacement response variability is suggested. In the formulation we adopted the concept of the weighted integral where the random variable is defined as integration of stochastic field function multiplied by a deterministic function over a finite element. In general the elastic modulus of composite materials has distinct value along an individual axis. Accordingly, we need to assume 5 material parameters as random. The correlations between these random parameters are modeled by means of correlation functions, and the degree of correlation is defined in terms of correlation coefficients. For the verification of the proposed scheme, we employ an independent analysis of Monte Carlo simulation with which statistical results can be obtained. Comparison is made between the proposed scheme and Monte Carlo simulation.

Key Words
Composite laminates, stochastic finite element analysis, spatial randomness, correlation, coefficient of variation.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 134-747, Korea

Abstract
The aim of this work is to provide some insights into the elasto-plastic behaviour of plate girder web square and rectangular panels with centred and eccentric holes under both compression and in-plane bending moment. The numerical study was validated comparing the numerical results obtained for one simple steel plate configuration with the corresponding experimental results, obtained at the University of Padova, observing the influence of the initial out-of-plane imperfections on the force vs. displacement relationship and ultimate strength. Once validated the numerical approach, the effect of bending moment on the stability of the plate is studied and some differences with respect to the uniform compression load case are shown. The influence of dimension and position of the hole, the plate aspect ratio and the steel grade on elasto-plastic behaviour is observed. Some indications regarding the critical slenderness (at which transition from elastic to plastic collapse occurs) are given for square and rectangular plates with symmetric and eccentric holes having small, medium and large diameter.

Key Words
steel girder; perforated plate; elasto-plastic analysis; in-plane loading.

Address
Department of Structural and Transportation Engineering, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova, Italy

Abstract
This paper presents a computational study of column loss scenarios for typical multi-story steel buildings with perimeter moment frames and composite steel-concrete floors. Two prototype buildings (threestory and ten-story) were represented using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models and explicit dynamic analysis was used to simulate instantaneous loss of a first-story column. Twelve individual column loss scenarios were investigated in the three-story building and four in the ten-story building. This study provides insight into: three-dimensional load redistribution patterns; demands on the steel deck, concrete slab, connections and members; and the impact of framing configuration, building height and column loss location. In the dynamic simulations, demands were least severe for perimeter columns within a moment frame, but the structures also exhibited significant load redistribution for interior column loss scenarios that had no moment connectivity. Composite action was observed to be an important load redistribution mechanism following column loss and the concrete slab and steel deck were subjected to high localized stresses as a result of the composite action. In general, the steel buildings that were evaluated in this study demonstrated appreciable robustness.

Key Words
multi-story buildings; steel frames; structural integrity; progressive collapse; connections; composite beams; dynamic response; finite element method.

Address
Seth T. Hoffman : Peter Kiewit Sons

Abstract
The behavior of connections between open sandwich slabs and double steel skin composite walls in steel plate-concrete(SC) structure is investigated by a series of experimental programs to identify the roles of components in the transfer of forces. Such connections are supposed to transfer shear by the action of friction on the interface between the steel surface and the concrete surface, as well as the shear resistance of the bottom steel plate attached to the wall. Experimental observation showed that shear transfer in slabs subjected to shear in short spans is explained by direct force transfer via diagonal struts and indirect force transfer via truss actions. Shear resistance at the interface is enhanced by the shear capacity of the shear plate as well as friction caused by the compressive force along the wall plate. Shear friction resistance along the wall plate was deduced from experimental observation. Finally, the appropriate design strength of the connection is proposed for a practical design purpose.

Key Words
Wall-slab connections, steel plate-concrete strucutre, composite wall, shear plate, SC structure

Address
Woo-Bum Kim : Department of Architectural Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju, Korea
Byong Jeong Choi : Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyonggi University, Kyonggido, Korea


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