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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 3, March 2012
 

Abstract
This paper presents an investigation of the effect of inclined stiffeners on the load-carrying capacity of simply-supported hot-rolled steel I-beams under various load conditions. The study is carried out using finite element analysis. A series of beams modeled using 3-D solid finite elements with consideration of initial geometric imperfections, residual stresses, and material nonlinearity are analyzed with and without inclined stiffeners to show how the application of inclined stiffeners can offer a noticeable increase in their lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) capacity. The analysis results have shown that the amount of increase in LTB capacity is primarily dependent on the location of the inclined stiffeners and the lateral unsupported length of the beam. The width, thickness and inclination angle of the stiffeners do not have as much an effect on the beam

Key Words
steel design; I-beams; inclined stiffeners; lateral-torsional instability; finite element analysis

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1240, U.S.A.

Abstract
Nowadays CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) became widely used materials for the strengthening and retrofitting of structures. Many experimental and analytical studies are encountered at literature about strengthening beams by using this kind of materials against static loads and cyclic loads such as earthquake or wind loading for investigating their behavior. But authors did not found any study about strengthening of RC beams by using CFRP against low velocity impact and investigating their behavior. For these reasons an experimental study is conducted on totally ten strengthened RC beams. Impact loading is applied on to specimens by using an impact loading system that is designed by authors. Investigated parameters were concrete compression strength and drop height. Two different sets of specimens with different concrete compression strength tested under the impact loading that are applied by dropping constant weight hammer from five different heights. The acceleration arises from the impact loading is measured against time. The change of velocity, displacement and energy are calculated for all specimens. The failure modes of the specimens with normal and high concrete compression strength are observed under the loading of constant weight impact hammer that are dropped from different heights. Impact behaviors of beams are positively affected from the strengthening with CFRP. Measured accelerations, the number of drops up to failure and dissipated energy are increased. Finite element analysis that are made by using ABAQUS software is used for the simulation of experiments, and model gave compatible results with experiments.

Key Words
CFRP; low velocity impact behavior; strengthening; drop weight; ABAQUS

Address
Erkan Kantar : Civil Eng. Dept., Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkiye, 45040
Ozgur Anil: Civil Eng. Dept., Gazi University, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkiye, 06570

Abstract
This research aims to investigate the structural behavior of concentrically braced frames after element loss by performing nonlinear static and dynamic analyses such as Time History Analysis (THA), Pushdown Analysis (PDA), Vertical Incremental Dynamic Analyses (VIDA) and Performance-Based Analysis (PBA). Such analyses are to assess the potential and capacity of this structural system for occurrence of progressive collapse. Besides, by determining the Failure Overload Factors (FOFs) and associated failure modes, it is possible to relate the results of various types of analysis in order to save the analysis time and effort. Analysis results showed that while VIDA and PBA according to FEMA 356 are mostly similar in detecting failure mode and FOFs, the Pushdown Overload Factors (PDOFs) differ from others at most to the rate of 23%. Furthermore, by sensitivity analysis it was observed that among the investigated structures, the eight-story frame had the most FOF. Finally, in this research the trend of FOF and the FOF to critical member capacity ratio for the plane split-X braced frames were introduced as a function of the number of frame stories.

Key Words
element loss, progressive collapse, concentrically braced frame, pushdown, vertical incremental dynamic analysis, failure mode, performance-based analysis, overload factor.

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
In this study, stress and deflection behaviours of T-type welding joint applied to HE200M steel beam and column were investigated in finite element method (FEM) under different distributed loads. In the 3D-FEM modelling, glue option was used to contact between steel materials and weld nuggets. Geometrical model was designed as 3-dimensional solid in ANSYS software program. After that, homogeneous, linear and isotropic properties were used to design to materials of model. Solid-92 having 3-dimensional, 4 faced and 10-noded was selected as element type. In consequence of mesh operation, elements of 13285 and nodes of 28086 were occurred. Load distribution was applied to top surface of steel beam to determine behaviours of stress and deflection. As a result of FEM analysis applied with the loads of 55,000 N, 110,000 N and 220,000 N, maximum values were obtained as 116 N/mm2, 232 N/mm2 and 465 N/mm2 for stress and obtainedas 1,083 mm, 2,166 mm and 4.332 mm for deflection, respectively. When modelling results and classical calculation values were compared, it was obtained difference of 10 % for stress values and 2.5% for deflection values.

Key Words
steel beam and column; modelling; finite element method; stress; deflection.

Address
Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Sakarya University, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey

Abstract
This study proposes and examines a circular composite bridge pier for seismic resistance. The axial and flexural strengths of the proposed bridge pier are provided by the longitudinal reinforcing bars and the concrete, while the transverse reinforcements used in the conventional reinforced concrete pier are replaced by the steel tube. The shear strength of this composite pier relies on the steel tube and the concrete. This system is similar to the steel jacketing method which strengthens the existing reinforced concrete bridge piers. However, no transverse shear reinforcing bar is used in the proposed composite bridge pier. A series of experimental studies is conducted to investigate the seismic resistant characteristics of the proposed circular composite pier. The effects of the longitudinal reinforcing bars, the shear span-to-diameter ratio, and the thickness of the steel tube on the performance of strength, ductility, and energy dissipation of the proposed pier are discussed. The experimentalresults show that the strength of the proposed circular composite bridge pier can be predicted accurately by the similar method used in the reinforced concrete piers with minor modification. From these experimental studies, it is found that the proposed circular composite bridge pier not only simplifies the construction work greatly but also provides excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity under seismic lateral force.

Key Words
composite bridge pier; ductility; steel tube; seismic resistance

Address
Sheng-Jin Chen, K.M. Lin and C.C. Wang : National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Construction Engineering,Taipei, Taiwan
Kuo-Chen Yang : National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Department of Construction Engineering,Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Abstract
Thermal effect has great influence on wellbore stability in Dongfang 1-1 (DF 1-1) gas field, a reservoir with high-temperature and high-pressure. In order to analyze the wellbore stability in DF1-1 gas field, the variation of temperature field after drilling was analyzed. In addition, the effect of temperature changing on formation strength and the thermal expansion coefficients of formation were tested. On this basis, a wellbore stability model considering thermal effect was developed and the thermal effect on fracture pressure and collapse pressure was analyzed. One of the main challenges in this gas field is the decreasing temperature of the wellbore will reduce fracture pressure substantially, resulting in the drilling fluid leakage. If the drilling fluid density was reduced, kick or blowout may happen. Therefore, the key of safe drilling in DF1-1 gas field is to predict the fracture pressure accurately.

Key Words
computing model of temperature field; rock mechanical characteristic; thermal effect; mud circulation; wellbore stability; Dongfang 1-1 gas field; high temperature high pressure

Address
(1) Chuanliang Yan, Yuanfang Cheng:
School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao, 266580, China;
(2) Chuanliang Yan, Jingen Deng:
State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249, China;
(3) Xinjiang Yan, Junliang Yuan:
CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing, 100027, China;
(4) Fucheng Deng:
Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 434023, China.


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