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CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 6, December 2012
 

Abstract
As an alternative to current conventional force-based assessment methods, the energy-based seismic performance of a code-designed 20-storey high-rise steel building is evaluated in this paper. Using 3D nonlinear dynamic time-history method with consideration of additional material damping effect, the influences of different restoring force models and P-

Key Words
steel structure; numerical evaluation; seismic performance; energy balance concept; restoring force model; P-

Address
H.D. Zhang : School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin, PR China
Y.F. Wang : School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, PR China

Abstract
In this study, an experimental study is performed to understand the effect of spalling on the structural behavior of fire damaged steel reinforced high strength concrete (SRHSC) columns, and the test results of temperature distributions and the displacements at elevated temperature are analyzed. Toward this goal, three long columns are tested to investigate the effect of various test parameters on structural behavior during the fire, and twelve short columns are tested to investigate residual strength and stiffness after the fire. The test parameters are mixture ratios of polypropylene fiber (0 and 0.1 vol.%), magnitudes of applied loads (concentric loads and eccentric loads), and the time period of exposure to fire (0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes). The experimental results show that there is significant effect of loading on the structural behaviors of columns under fire. The loaded concrete columns result more explosive spalling than the unloaded columns under fire. In particular, eccentrically loaded columns are severely spalled. The temperature distributions of the concrete are not affected by the loading state if there is no spalling. However, the loading state affects the temperature distributions when there is spalling occurred. In addition, it is found that polypropylene fiber prevents spalling of both loaded and unloaded columns under fire. From these experimental findings, an equation of predicting residual load capacity of the fire damaged column is proposed.

Key Words
steel reinforced concrete; high strength concrete; concrete column; fire; spalling.

Address
Department of Architectural Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea

Abstract
This study uses an explicit numerical algorithm to evaluate the ultimate load capacity analysis of a unit Strarch frame, accounting for the initial imperfection effects of the stress-erection process. Displacement-based filament beam element and an explicit dynamic relaxation method with kinetic damping are used to achieve the analysis. The section is composed of the finite number of filaments that can be conveniently modeled by various material models. Ramberg-Osgood and bilinear kinematic elastic plastic material models are formulated to analyze the nonlinear material behaviors of filaments. The numerical results obtained in the present study are compared with the results of experiment for stress-erection and buckling of unit Strarch frames.

Key Words
Strarch; stress-erection process; bucking analysis; filament element; dynamic relaxation method.

Address
Kyoungsoo Lee, Jung-Wuk Hong : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea
Sang-Eul Han : Department of Architectural Engineering, School of Architecture, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Korea

Abstract
Seismic collapse analysis requires efficient and automated method to perform thousands of time history analyses. The paper introduced the advantages of speed and convergence property of explicit method, provided a few techniques to accelerate speed of calculation and developed an automated procedure for collapse assessment, which combines the strong capacity of commercial explicit finite element software and the flexible, intelligent specialties of control program written in FORTRAN language aiming at collapse analysis, so that tedious and heavy work of collapse analysis based on FEMAP695 can be easily implemented and resource of calculation can be made the best use of. All the key commands of control program are provided to help analyzers and engineers to cope with collapse assessment conveniently.

Key Words
seismic collapse; earthquake wave; explicit method; time history analysis; IDA.

Address
Yongsheng Qi and Dong Li : College of Civil Engineering and Traffic, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Qiang Gu : Departmentof Civil Engineering, Suzhou College of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China

Abstract
The paper addresses some key issues related to the design of composite slabs with cold-formed profiled steel sheets. An experimental programme is first presented, involving six composite slab specimens tested with a view to evaluating Eurocode 4 (EC4) provisions on testing of composite slabs. In four specimens, the EC4-prescribed 5000 load cycles were applied using different load ranges resulting from alternative interpretations of the reference load Wt. Although the rationale of the application of cyclic loading is to induce loss of chemical bond between the concrete plate and the steel sheet, no such loss was noted in the tests for either interpretation of the range of load cycles. Using the recorded response of the specimens the values of factors m and k (related to interface shear transfer in the composite slab) were determined for the specific steel sheet used in the tests, on the basis of three alternative interpretations of the related EC4 provisions. The test results confirmed the need for a more unambiguous description of the m-k test and its interpretation in a future edition of the Code, as well as for an increase in the load amplitude range to be used in the cyclic loading tests, to make sure that the intended loss of bond between the concrete slab and the steel sheet is actually reached. The study also included the development of a special-purpose software that facilitates design of composite slabs; a parametric investigation of the importance of m-k values in slab design is presented in the last part of the paper.

Key Words
composite slabs; profiled steel sheets; m-k factors; longitudinal shear; load cycles; Eurocode 4; chemical bond loss; design software.

Address
Thomas N. Salonikios : Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering - EPPO, Thessaloniki, Greece
Anastasios G. Sextos and Andreas J. Kappos : Civil Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract
Concrete-filled-steel-tubular (CFST) columns have been well proven to improve effectively the strength, stiffness and ductility of concrete members. However, the central part of concrete in CFST columns is not fully utilised under uni-axial compression, bending and torsion. It has small contribution to both flexural and torsion strength, while it can be replaced effectively by steel with smaller area to give similar loadcarrying capacity. Also, the confining pressure in CFST columns builds up slowly because the initial elastic dilation of concrete is small before micro-crackings of concrete are developed. From these observations, it is convinced that the central concrete can be effectively replaced by another hollow steel tube with smaller area to form double-skinned concrete-filled-steel-tubular (CFDST) columns. In this study, a series of uni-axial compression tests were carried out on CFDST and CFST columns with and without external steel rings. From the test results, it was observed that on average that the stiffness and elastic strength of CFDST columns are about 25.8% and 33.4% respectively larger than CFST columns with similar equivalent area. The averaged axial load-carrying capacity of CFDST columns is 7.8% higher than CFST columns. Lastly, a theoretical model that takes into account the confining effects of steel tube and external rings for predicting the uni-axial load-carrying capacity of CFDST columns is developed.

Key Words
columns; concrete-filled; double-skin; normal-strength concrete; rings.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong


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