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CONTENTS
Volume 16, Number 1, January 2014
 

Abstract
Knee Braced Frame (KBF) is a special form of ductile eccentrically braced frame having a diagonal brace connected to a knee element, as a hysteretic damper, instead of beam-column joint. This paper first presents an experimental investigation on cyclic performance of two knee braced single span one-story frame specimens. The general test arrangement, specimen details, and most relevant results (failure modes and hysteretic curves) are explained. Some indexes to assess the seismic performance of KBFs, including ductility; response reduction factor and energy dissipation capabilities are also subsequently discussed. Experimental results indicate that the maximum equivalent damping ratios achieved by test frames are 21.8 and 23% for the specimens, prior to failure. Finally, a simplified analytical model is derived to predict the bilinear behavior of the KBFs. Acceptable conformity between analytical and experimental results proves the accuracy of the proposed model.

Key Words
knee braced frames; cyclic behavior; ductility; equivalent damping ratio; response reduction factor; simplified model

Address
(1) Seyed Mehdi Zahrai:
Center of Excellence for Engineering and Management of Civil Infrastructures, School of Civil Engineering, the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Meysam Jalali:
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Damghan, Damghan, Iran.

Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the dynamic characteristics of long reinforced concrete highway bridges with post-tension tendons using analytical and experimental methods. It is known that the deck length and height of bridges are affected the dynamic characteristics considerably. For this purpose, Berta Bridge constructed in deep valley, in Artvin, Turkey, is selected as an application. The Bridge has two piers with height of 109.245 m and 85.193 m, and the total length of deck is 340.0 m. Analytical and experimental studies are carried out on Berta Bridge which was built in accordance with the balanced cantilever method. Finite Element Method (FEM) and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) which considers ambient vibration data were used in analytical and experimental studies, respectively. Finite element model of the bridge is created by using SAP2000 program to obtain analytical dynamic characteristics such as the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The ambient vibration tests are performed using Operational Modal Analysis under wind and human loads. Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) methods are used to obtain experimental dynamic characteristics like natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. At the end of the study, analytical and experimental dynamic characteristic are compared with each other and the finite element model of the bridge was updated considering the material properties and boundary conditions. It is emphasized that Operational Modal Analysis method based on the ambient vibrations can be used safely to determine the dynamic characteristics, to update the finite element models, and to monitor the structural health of long reinforced concrete highway bridges constructed with the balanced cantilever method.

Key Words
operational modal analysis; dynamic characteristics; balanced cantilever concrete bridges; finite element model updating; structural health monitoring of bridge

Address
(1) Fatma Nur Kudu, Alemdar Bayraktar, Temel Türker and Ahmet Can Altunişik:
Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey;
(2) Pelin Gündeş Baki:
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract
EC3 provides several methodologies for the stability verification of members and frames. However, when dealing with the verification of non-uniform members in general, with tapered cross-section, irregular distribution of restraints, non-linear axis, castellated, etc., several difficulties are noted. Because there are yet no guidelines to overcome any of these issues, safety verification is conservative. In recent research from the authors of this paper, an Ayrton-Perry based procedure was proposed for the flexural buckling verification of web-tapered columns. However, in order to apply this procedure, Linear Buckling Analysis (LBA) of the tapered column must be performed for determination of the critical load. Because tapered members should lead to efficient structural solutions, it is therefore of major importance to provide simple and accurate formula for determination of the critical axial force of tapered columns. In this paper, firstly, the fourth order differential equation for non-uniform columns is derived. For the particular case of simply supported web-tapered columns subject to in-plane buckling, the Rayleigh-Ritz method is applied. Finally, and followed by a numerical parametric study, a formula for determination of the critical axial force of simply supported linearly web-tapered columns buckling in plane is proposed leading to differences up to 8% relatively to the LBA model.

Key Words
stability; Eurocode 3; tapered columns; FEM; steel structures; Rayleigh-Ritz

Address
Liliana Marques, Luis Simões da Silva and Carlos Rebelo:
ISISE - Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra, Portugal.

Abstract
A new concrete confinement model is developed to predict the axial load versus displacement behavior of circular columns under concentric axial load. The new confinement model is proposed for concrete filled steel tube columns as well as circular reinforced concrete columns with steel tube jacketing. Existing confinement models were evaluated and improved using available experimental data from different sets of columns tested under similar loading conditions. The proposed model is based on commonly used confinement models with an emphasis on modifying the effective confining pressure coefficient utilizing the strength of the unconfined concrete and the steel tube, the length of the column, and the thickness of the steel tube. The proposed model predicts the ultimate axial strength and the corresponding strain with an acceptable degree of accuracy while also highlighting the importance of the manner in which the steel tube is used.

Key Words
confinement; concrete filled steel tube; axial strain; circular column; axial strength

Address
J. Rupp, H. Sezen and S. Chaturvedi:
The Ohio State University, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, 470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Abstract
In this paper, magneto-thermo-elastic problem of a thick truncated conical shell immersed in a uniform magnetic field and subjected to internal pressure is investigated. Material properties of the shell including the elastic modulus, magnetic permeability, coefficients of thermal expansion and conduction are assumed to be isotropic and graded through the thickness obeying the simple power law distribution, while the poison\'s ratio is assumed to be constant. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of the thickness direction. Governing equations of the truncated conical shell are derived in terms of components of displacement and thermal fields and discretised with the help of differential quadrature (DQ) method. Results are obtained for different values of power law index of material properties and effects of thermal load on displacement, stress, temperature and magnetic fields are studied. Results of the present method are compared with those of the finite element method.

Key Words
Magneto-thermo-elastic; functionally graded material; truncated conical shell

Address
A. Mehditabar, R. Akbari Alashti* and M.H. Pashaei:
Mechanical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran.

Abstract
This paper deals with a study on ultimate strength behaviour of eccentrically loaded CFT columns with and without shear connectors. Thirty specimens are subjected to experimental investigation under eccentric loading condition. P-M curves are generated for all the test specimens and critical eccentricities are evaluated. Three different D/t ratios such as 21, 25 and 29 and L/D ratios varying from 5 to 20 are considered as experimental parameters. Six specimens of bare steel tubes as reference specimens, twelve specimens of CFT columns without shear connectors and twelve specimens of CFT columns with shear connectors, in total thirty specimens are tested. The P-M values at the ultimate failure load of experimental study are found to be well agreed with the results of the proposed P-M interaction model. The load-deflection and load-strain behaviour of the experimental column specimens are presented. The behaviour of the CFT columns with and without shear connectors is compared. Experimental results indicate that the percentage increase in load carrying capacity of CFT columns with shear connectors compared to the ordinary CFT columns is found to be insignificant with a value ranging from 6% to 13%. However, the ductility factor of columns with shear connectors exhibit higher values than that of the CFT columns without shear connectors. This paper presents the proposed P-M interaction model and experimental results under varying parameters such as D/t and L/D ratios.

Key Words
CFT; shear connector; P-M interaction; ductility

Address
K. Chithira and K. Baskar:
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamilnadu, India.


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