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CONTENTS
Volume 16, Number 4, March 2014
 

Abstract
This paper presents a study of the nonlinear cylindrical bending of an exponential functionally graded plate (simply called E-FG) with variable thickness. The plate is subjected to uniform pressure loading and his geometric nonlinearity is introduced in the strain-displacement equations based on Von-Karman assumptions. The material properties of functionally graded plates, except the Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the plate in accordance with the exponential law distribution; and the solution is obtained using Hamilton's principle for constant plate thickness. In order to analyze functionally graded plate with variable thickness, a numerical solution using finite difference method is used, where parabolic variation of the plate thickness is studied. The results for E-FG plates are given in dimensionless graphical forms; and the effects of material and geometric properties on displacements and normal stresses through the thickness are determined.

Key Words
functionally graded materials; nonlinear cylindrical bending; variable plate thickness; FGM

Address
(1) Abdelhakim Kaci and Khalil Belakhdar:
Department of Civil Engineering and Hydraulics, University of Saida, Algeria;
(2) Abdelouahed Tounsi and El Abbes Adda Bedia:
Laboratory of Materials and Hydrology, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria.

Abstract
The design basis is being shifted from strength to deformation in modern performance-based design codes. This paper presents a practical method for optimization of eccentrically braced steel frames, based on the concept of uniform deformation theory (UDT). This is done by gradually shifting inefficient material from strong parts of the structure to the weak areas until a state of uniform deformation is achieved. In the first part of this paper, UDT is implemented on 3, 5 and 10 story eccentrically braced frames (EBF) subjected to 12 earthquake records representing the design spectrum of ASCE/SEI 7-10. Subsequently, the optimum strength-distribution patterns corresponding to these excitations are determined, and compared with four other loading patterns. Since the optimized frames have uniform distribution of deformation, they undergo less damage in comparison with code-based designed structures while having minimum structural weight. For further investigation, the 10 story EBF is redesigned using four different loading patterns and subjected to 12 earthquake excitations. Then a comparison is made between link rotations of each model and those belonging to the optimized one which revealed that the optimized EBF behaves generally better than those designed by other loading patterns. Finally, efficiency of each loading pattern is evaluated and the best one is determined.

Key Words
performance-based design; structural optimization; uniform deformation theory; seismic loading pattern; eccentrically braced frame; nonlinear dynamic analysis

Address
Reza Karami Mohammadi and Amir Hossein Sharghi:
Civil Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology (KNTU), Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for evaluation of varying stiffness coefficients of tailored conical shells (TCS). Furthermore, a comparison between buckling loads of these shells under axial load with the different fiber path is performed. A circular truncated conical shell subjected to axial compression is taken into account. Three different theoretical path containing geodesic path, constant curvature path and constant angle path has been considered to describe the angle variation along the cone length, along cone generator of a conical shell are offered. In the TCS with the arbitrary fiber path, the thickness and the ply orientation are assumed to be functions of the shell coordinates and influencing stiffness coefficients of the structure. The stiffness coefficients and the buckling loads of shells are calculated basing on classical shells theory (CST) and using finite-element analysis (FEA) software. The obtained results for TCS with arbitrary fiber path, thickness and ply orientation are derived as functions of shell longitudinal coordinate and influencing stiffness coefficients of structures. Furthermore, the buckling loads based on fiber path and ply orientation at the start of tailored fiber get to be different. The extent of difference for tailored fiber with start angle lower than 20 degrees is not significant. The results in this paper show that using tailored fiber placement could be applied for producing conical shells in order to have greater buckling strengths and lower weight. This work demonstrates the use of fiber path definitions for calculated stiffness coefficients and buckling loads of conical shells.

Key Words
composite; fiber path; tailored conical shells; stiffness coefficients; buckling

Address
(1) Ali-Asghar Naderi and Gholam-Hossein Rahimi:
Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, P.O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Mohammad Arefi:
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167, Iran.

Abstract
This study deals with dynamic model of composite sandwich panels with functionally graded flexible cores under low velocity impacts of multiple large or small masses using a new improved higher order sandwich panel theory (IHSAPT). In-plane stresses were considered for the functionally graded core and face sheets. The formulation was based on the first order shear deformation theory for the composite face sheets and polynomial description of the displacement fields in the core that was based on the second Frostig's model. Fully dynamic effects of the functionally graded core and face-sheets were considered in this study. Impacts were assumed to occur simultaneously and normally over the top and/or bottom of the face-sheets with arbitrary different masses and initial velocities. The contact forces between the panel and impactors were treated as internal forces of the system. Nonlinear contact stiffness was linearized with a newly presented improved analytical method in this paper. The results were validated by comparing the analytical, numerical and experimental results published in the latest literature.

Key Words
sandwich panel; FG core; spring-mass system; multi masses; low-velocity impact; contact law

Address
K. Malekzadeh Fard:
Department of Structural Analysis and Simulation, Space Research Institute, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran-Karaj Highway, Post box: 14665-143, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
During an earthquake, steel frame columns can be subjected to high axial forces combined with inelastic rotation demand resulting from story drift. Generally, the whole beam or component can be represented with one element. In elasto-plastic analysis, subdivision is necessary if the plastic deformation occurs within two ends of beams. If effects of the joint panel are necessarily considered in the analysis, the joint panel should be represented with an independent element. It is a special element to represent the shear deformation of the joint panel in the beam.column connection zone. Several analytical models for panel zone (PZ) behavior exist, in terms of shear force-shear distortion relationships. Among these models, the Krawinkler PZ model is the most popular one which is used in the AISC code. Some studies have pointed out that Krawinkler's model gives good results for the range of thin to medium column flanges thickness. This paper, introduces a new model to estimate the response of shear force-shear distortion for the PZ including column axial force. The model is applicable to both thin and thick column flange. To achieve an appropriate PZ mathematical model first, the effects of PZ strength and stiffness on connection response are parametrically studied using finite element models. More than one thousand and four-hundred beam-column connections are included in the parametric study, with varied parameters; then based on analytical results a simple mathematical model is presented. A comparison between the results of proposed method herein with FE analyses shows the average error especially in thick column flange is significantly reduced which demonstrates the accuracy, efficiency, and simplicity of the proposed model.

Key Words
panel zone; shear strength; beam-column connection; axial force; FEM

Address
Iman Mansouri and Hamed Saffari:
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, P.O. Box 76169133, Kerman, Iran.

Abstract
The influence of spacers on the behaviour and ultimate capacity of intermediate length CFS open section columns under axial compression is investigated in this paper. The focus of the research lies in the cross- section predominantly, failed by distortional buckling. This paper made an attempt to either delay or eliminate the distortional buckling mode by the introduction of transverse elements referred herein as spacers. The cross-sections investigated have been selected by performing the elastic buckling analysis using CUFSM software. The test program considered three different columns having slenderness ratios of 35, 50 & 60. The test program consisted of 14 pure axial compression tests under hinged-hinged end condition. Models have been analysed using finite element simulations and the obtained results are compared with the experimental tests. The finite element package ABAQUS has been used to carry out non-linear analyses of the columns. The finite element model incorporates material, geometric non-linearities and initial geometric imperfection of the specimens. The work involves a wide parametric study in the column with spacers of varying depth and number of spacers. The results obtained from the study shows that the depth and number of spacers have significant influence on the behaviour and strength of the columns. Based on the nonlinear regression analysis the design equation is proposed for the selected section.

Key Words
cold-formed steel; column; distortional buckling; spacer; thin walled member

Address
M. Anbarasu and S. Sukumar:
Department of Civil Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Salem - 636 011, Tamilnadu, India.


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