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CONTENTS
Volume 17, Number 3, September 2014
 

Abstract
The flexural behaviour of steel beams significantly affects the structural performance of the steel frame structures. In particular, the flexural overstrength (namely the ratio between the maximum bending moment and the plastic bending strength) that steel beams may experience is the key parameter affecting the seismic design of non-dissipative members in moment resisting frames. The aim of this study is to present a new formulation of flexural overstrength factor for steel beams by means of artificial neural network (NN). To achieve this purpose, a total of 141 experimental data samples from available literature have been collected in order to cover different cross-sectional typologies, namely I-H sections, rectangular and square hollow sections (RHS-SHS). Thus, two different data sets for I-H and RHS-SHS steel beams were formed. Nine critical prediction parameters were selected for the former while eight parameters were considered for the latter. These input variables used for the development of the prediction models are representative of the geometric properties of the sections, the mechanical properties of the material and the shear length of the steel beams. The prediction performance of the proposed NN model was also compared with the results obtained using an existing formulation derived from the gene expression modeling. The analysis of the results indicated that the proposed formulation provided a more reliable and accurate prediction capability of beam overstrength.

Key Words
experimental database; flexural overstrength; modeling; neural networks; steel beams

Address
(1) Esra Mete Güneyisi:
Department of Civil Engineering, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey;
(2) Mario D'Aniello, Raffaele Landolfo:
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy;
(3) Kasım Mermerdaş:
Department of Civil Engineering, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Abstract
The use of composite structures is increasingly present in civil building works. Composite Box Girder Bridges (CBGB), particularly, are study of effect of shear connector\'s numbers and distribution on the behavior of CBGBs is submitted. A Predicti structures consisting of two materials, both connected by metal devices known as shear connectors. The main functions of these connectors are to allow for the joint behavior of the girder-deck, to restrict longitudinal slipping and uplifting at the element\'s interface and to take shear forces. This paper presents 3D numerical models of CBGBs to simulate their actual structural behavior, with emphasis on the girder-deck interface. Additionally, a Prediction of several FE models is assessed against the results acquired from a field test. A number of factors are considered, and confirmed through experiments, especially full shear connections, which are obviously essential in composite box girder. A good representation for shear connectors by suitable element type is considered. Numerical predictions of vertical displacements at critical sections fit fairly well with those evaluated experimentally. The agreement between the FE models and the experimental models show that the FE model can aid engineers in design practices of box girder bridges. Preliminary results indicate that number of shear studs can be significantly reduced to facilitate adoption of a new arrangement in modeling CBGBs with full composition. However, a further feasibility study to investigate the practical and economic aspects of such a remedy is recommended, and it may represent partial composition in such modeling.

Key Words
composite box girder bridge; full connections; FE technique; shear connectors

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Gaziantep, 27310, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Abstract
Among the various alternatives to make a steel tubular member connection, making a slotted and gusset plate welded connection is one of the most frequently preferred alternatives. This type of connection is essentially an end connection that is made by slotting the tube longitudinally, inserting the gusset plate and then placing longitudinal fillet welds at the tube-to-plate interface. In this paper an experimental study on the behaviour of such connections in stainless steel is presented. 24 specimens were tested under concentrically applied axial tensile forces for varying tube-to-gusset plate weld lengths. Both circular and box section members were considered in the test program. Load-deformation curves were obtained and comparisons were made in terms of strength and ductility. The results obtained from the study were then critically examined and compared with currently available design guidance for slotted gusset plate welded tubular end connections. It is noted that no specific rules exist in international specifications on structural stainless steel which cover the design of such connections. Therefore, the results of this study are compared with the existing design rules for carbon steel.

Key Words
stainless steel; tubular members; slotted and gusset plate welded connection; shear lag; tensile fracture

Address
(1) Guven Kiymaz:
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece Campus, Istanbul, Turkey;
(2) Edip Seckin:
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, İstanbul, Turkey.

Abstract
This paper aims to examine the behavior of slender reinforced concrete columns confined with external glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) sheets under eccentric loads. The experimental work conducted in this paper is an extension to previous work by the author concerning the behavior of eccentrically loaded short columns strengthened with GFRP wrapping. In this study, nine reinforced concrete columns divided into three groups were casted and tested. Three eccentricity ratios corresponding to e/t = 0, 0.10, and 0.50 in one direction of the column were tested in each group. The first group was the control one without confinement with slenderness ratio equal 20. The second group was the same as the first group but fully wrapped with one layer of GFRP laminates. The third group was also fully wrapped with one layer of GFRP laminates but having slenderness ratio equal 15. The experimental results of another two groups from the previous work were used in this study to investigate the difference between short and slender columns. The first was control one with slenderness ratio equal 10 and the second was fully wrapped and having the same slenderness ratio. All specimens were loaded until failure. The ultimate load, axial deformation, strain in steel bars, and failure mechanisms of each specimen were generated and analyzed. The results show that GFRP laminates confining system is less effective with slender columns compared with short one, but this solution is still applied and it can be efficiently utilized especially for slender columns with low eccentric ratio.

Key Words
confinement; eccentricity; glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP); slender columns; strengthening; wrapping

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, The Higher Institute of Engineering, El Sherouk City, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract
8 steel reinforced concrete (SRC) columns with the encased steel ratio of 13.12% and 15.04% respectively were tested under the test axial load ratio of 0.33-0.80 and the low-frequency cyclic lateral loading. The cross sectional area of composite columns was 500 mm × 500 mm. The mechanical properties, failure modes and deformabilities were studied. All the specimens produced flexure failure subject to combined axial force, bending moment and shear. Force-displacement hysteretic curves, strain curves of encased steels and rebars were obtained. The interaction behavior of encased steel and concrete were verified. The hysteretic curves of columns were plump in shapes. Hysteresis loops were almost coincident under the same levels of lateral loading, and bearing capacities did not change much, which indicated that the columns had good energy-dissipation performance and seismic capacity. Based on the equilibrium equation, the suggested practical calculation method could accurately predict the flexural strength of SRC columns with cross-shaped section encased steel. The obtained M-N curves of SRC columns can be used as references for further studies.

Key Words
axial load ratio; cyclic loading test; flexural strength; high ratio of encased steel; SRC

Address
(1) Xilin Lu, Huanjun Jiang:
State Key laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China;
(2) Xiaowei Yin:
China Academy of Building Research, Beijing, China.

Abstract
The lowest critical value of the compressive force acting in the plane of symmetrically laminated quasi-isotropic thin rectangular plates is investigated. The critical buckling loads of plates with different types of lamination and aspect ratios are parametrically calculated. Finite Differences Method (FDM) and Galerkin Method are used to solve the governing differential equation for Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT). The results calculated are compared with those obtained by the software ANSYS employing Finite Elements Method (FEM). The results of Galerkin Method (GM) are closer to FEM results than those of FDM. In this study, the primary aim is to conduct a parametrical performance analysis of proper plates that is typically conducted at preliminary structural design stage of composite vessels. Non-dimensional values of critical buckling loads are also provided for practical use for designers.

Key Words
critical buckling load; finite differences method; the Galerkin method; parametric study; symmetrically laminated quasi-isotropic plates

Address
(1) Erkin Altunsaray:
Institute of Marine Science and Technology, Dokuz Eylul University, Baku Bulvari, 100, TR-35340, Izmir, Turkey;
(2) İsmail Bayer:
Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, TR-34349 Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract
In the present study, a new simple first-order shear deformation theory is presented for laminated composite plates. Moreover, the number of unknowns of this theory is the least one comparing with the traditional first-order and the other higher-order shear deformation theories. Equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived from Hamilton's principle. Analytical solutions of simply supported antisymmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminates are obtained and the results are compared with the exact three-dimensional (3D) solutions and those predicted by existing theories. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.

Key Words
laminated composite plate; plate theory; bending; vibration

Address
(1) Mohamed Sadoune, Abdelouahed Tounsi, El Abbes Adda Bedia:
Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria;
(2) Abdelouahed Tounsi, Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari:
Advanced Materials and Structures Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria.

Abstract
Exodermic deck systems are new composite steel grid deck systems which have been used in various projects during the past decade. One of the eminent features of this system is considerable reduction in the structure weight compared to the ordinary reinforced concrete decks and also reduction in construction time by using precast Exodermic decks. In this study, dynamic properties of the Exodermic deck bridges with alternative perfobond shear connectors are investigated experimentally. In order to evaluate the dynamic properties of the decks, peak picking and Nyquist circle fit methods are employed. Frequencies obtained experimentally are in good agreement with the results of the finite-element solution, and the experimental results show that the first mode is the most effective mode among the obtained modes. The first four modes are the rigid translational motion modes, and the next two modes seem to be rigid rotational motion modes around a horizontal axis. From the 7th mode onwards, modes are flexible. The range of damping ratios is about 0.5%. Furthermore, the static behavior of the Exodermic decks under a static load applied at the center of the decks was investigated. Failure of the decks under positive bending was punching-shear. The bending strength of the decks under negative bending was about 50 percent of their strength under positive bending. In addition, the weight of an Exodermic deck is about 40% of that of an equivalent reinforced concrete slab.

Key Words
exodermic decks; shear connector; dynamic properties; composite structure

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran.


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