Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


scs
 
CONTENTS
Volume 18, Number 3, March 2015
 

Abstract
Deflection in a beam of a composite frame is a serviceability design criterion. This paper presents a methodology for rapid prediction of long-term mid-span deflections of beams in composite frames subjected to service load. Neural networks have been developed to predict the inelastic mid-span deflections in beams of frames (typically for 20 years, considering cracking, and time effects, i.e., creep and shrinkage in concrete) from the elastic moments and elastic mid-span deflections (neglecting cracking, and time effects). These models can be used for frames with any number of bays and stories. The training, validating, and testing data sets for the neural networks are generated using a hybrid analytical-numerical procedure of analysis. Multilayered feed-forward networks have been developed using sigmoid function as an activation function and the back propagation-learning algorithm for training. The proposed neural networks are validated for an example frame of different number of spans and stories and the errors are shown to be small. Sensitivity studies are carried out using the developed neural networks. These studies show the influence of variations of input parameters on the output parameter. The neural networks can be used in every day design as they enable rapid prediction of inelastic mid-span deflections with reasonable accuracy for practical purposes and require computational effort which is a fraction of that required for the available methods.

Key Words
composite frames; cracking; creep; deflection; neural networks

Address
(1) Umesh Pendharkar:
School of Engineering and Technology, Vikram University, Ujjain 456010, India;
(2) K.A. Patel, A.K. Nagpal:
Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India;
(3) Sandeep Chaudhary:
Civil Engineering Department, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur 302017, India.

Abstract
This paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis of simply-supported steel-concrete composite beams under moving loads. Considering the interface slip between steel girder and concrete slab, the governing motion equations are derived from the direct balanced method. By variable separation approach, the analytical solution of natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained, as well as the orthogonal conditions. Then the dynamic responses of the composite beam under moving loads are analyzed, and compared with the experimental results. The analysis results show that the governing motion equations become more complicated when interface slip is taken into account, and the dynamic behaviors are significantly influenced by the shear connection stiffness. In the dynamic calculation of composite beams, the global stiffness should not be reduced as the same factor to all orders, but as different ones according to the dynamic stiffness reduction factor (DSRF), to which should be paid more attention in calculation, design and experiment, or else great deviation is inevitable.

Key Words
steel-concrete composite beam; dynamic characteristics; natural frequency; orthogonal condition; moving loads; analytical solution; model test

Address
(1) Zhongming Hou, He Xia:
School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China;
(2) Zhongming Hou, Yuanqing Wang, Tianshen Zhang:
Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China;
(3) Yanling Zhang:
School of Civil Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043, Hebei, China.

Abstract
In the present study, the combined effects of thermal and mechanical loadings on the interlaminar shear stresses of both moderately thin and thick composite laminated beams are numerically analyzed. The finite element modelling of laminated composite beams and analysis of interlaminar stresses are performed using the commercially available software package MSC NASTRAN/PATRAN. The validity of the finite element analysis (FEA) is demonstrated by comparing the experimental test results obtained due to mechanical loadings under the influence of thermal environment with those derived using the present FEA. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of thermal loading on interlaminar stresses generated in symmetric, anti-symmetric, asymmetric, unidirectional, cross-ply, and balanced composite laminated beams of different stacking sequences with identical mechanical loadings and various boundary conditions. It is shown that the elevated thermal environment lead to higher interlaminar shear stresses varying with the stacking sequence, length to thickness ratio, ply orientations under identical mechanical loading and boundary conditions of the composite laminated beams. It is realized that the magnitude of the interlaminar stresses along xz plane is always much higher than those of along yz plane irrespective of the ply-orientation, length to thickness ratios and boundary conditions of the composite laminated beams. It is also observed that the effect of thermal environment on the interlaminar shear stresses in carbon-epoxy fiber reinforced composite laminated beams are increasing in the order of symmetric cross-ply laminate, unidirectional laminate, asymmetric cross-ply laminate and anti-symmetric laminate. The interlaminar shear stresses are higher in thinner composite laminated beams compared to that in thicker composite laminated beams under all environmental temperatures irrespective of the laminate stacking sequence, ply-orientation and boundary conditions.

Key Words
composite laminates; interlaminar shear stresses; orthotropic materials; thermal environment; finite element analysis

Address
School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract
In this study, theoretical models and design procedures of the behavior of thin-walled simply supported steel beams with an open cross section under a large torsional effect are presented. I-sections were chosen as the cross section types. Firstly, the widely used differential equations for the lateral buckling for the pure bending moment effect in a beam element were adopted for the various moment distributions along the span of the beam. This solution was obtained for both mono-symmetric and bisymmetric sections. The buckling loads were then obtained by using the energy method. When using the energy method to solve the problem, it is possible to locate the load not only on the shear center but also at several points of the section depth. Buckling loads were obtained for six different load types. Results obtained for different load and cross section types were checked with ABAQUS software and compared with several standard rules.

Key Words
lateral torsional buckling; I-section beams; stability; buckling load

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Abstract
Self-compacting Concrete (SCC) Filled Square steel Tubes (SCFST) was used to strengthen square RC columns. To establish the efficiency of this strengthening method, 17 columns were tested under axial compression loading including 3 RC columns without any strengthening (WRC), 1 RC column strengthened with concrete jacket (CRC), 13 RC columns strengthened with self-compacting concrete filled square steel tubes (SRC). The experimental results showed that the use of SCFST is interesting since the ductility and the bearing capacity of the RC columns are greatly improved. The improvement ratio is significantly affected by the nominal wall thickness of steel tubes (t), the strength grade of strengthening concrete (C), and the length-to-width ratio (L / B) of the specimens. In order to quantitatively analyze the effect of these test parameters on axial loading behavior of the SRC columns, three performance indices, enhancement ratio (ER), ductility index (DI), and confinement ratio (CR), were used. The strength of the SRC columns obtained from the experiments was then employed to verify the proposed mode referring to the relevant codes. It was found that codes DBJ13-51 could relatively predict the strength of the SRC columns accurately, and codes AIJ and BS5400 were relatively conservative.

Key Words
RC columns; self-compacting concrete (SCC); square steel tubes; strengthening method; axial load

Address
School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, 430072, China.

Abstract
Application of reduced web beam section (RWBS) as a sacrificial fuse element has become a popular research field in recent years. Weakening of beam web in these connections may cause local web buckling around the opening area which can affect cyclic behavior of connection including: maximum load carrying capacity, strength degradation rate, dissipated energy, rotation capacity, etc. In this research, effect of local web buckling on the cyclic behavior of RWBS connections is investigated using finite element modeling (FEM). For this purpose, a T-shaped moment connection which has been tested under cyclic loading by another author is used as the reference model. Fracture initiation in models is simulated using Cyclic Void Growth Model (CVGM) which is based on micro-void growth and coalescence. Included in the results are: effect of opening corner radii, opening dimensions, beam web thickness and opening reinforcement. Based on the results, local web buckling around the opening area plays a significant role on the cyclic behavior of connection and hence any parameter affecting the local web buckling will affect entire connection behavior.

Key Words
moment resisting frames; reduced web beam section; cyclic loading; local web buckling

Address
Civil Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
This research deals with the analytical solution of a curved beam with different shapes made of functionally graded materials (FGM's). It was assumed that modulus of elasticity is graded along the thickness direction of curved beam based on a power function. The beam was loaded under pure bending. Using the linear theory of elasticity, the general relation for radial distribution of radial and circumferential stresses of arbitrary cross section was derived. The effect of nonhomogeneity was considered on the radial distribution of circumferential stress. This behavior can be investigated for positive and negative values of nonhomogeneity index. The novelty of this study is application of the obtained results for different combination of material properties and cross sections. Achieved results indicate that employing different nonhomogeneity index and selection of various types of cross sections (rectangular, triangular or circular) can control the distribution of radial and circumferential stresses as designer want and propose new solutions by these options. Increasing the nonhomogeneity index for positive or negative values of nonhomogeneity index and for various cross sections presents different behaviors along the thickness direction. In order to validate the present research, the results of this research can be compared with previous result for reachable cross sections and non homogeneity index.

Key Words
curved beam; functionally graded beams (FGBs); nonhomogeneity index; stress; bending

Address
Department of Solid Mechanic, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167, Iran.

Abstract
In this paper we are particularly focusing on the dynamic crack fatigue life of a 25 m length wind turbine blade. The blade consists of composite materiel (glass/epoxy). This work consisted initially to make a theoretical study, the turbine blade is modeled as a Timoshenko rotating beam and the analytical formulation is obtained. After applying boundary condition and loads, we have studied the stress, strain and displacement in order to determine the critical zone, also show the six first modes shapes to the wind turbine blade. Secondly was addressed to study the crack initiation in critical zone which based to finite element to give the results, then follow the evolution of the displacement, strain, stress and first six naturals frequencies a function as crack growth. In the experimental part the laminate plate specimen with two layers is tested under cyclic load in fully reversible tensile at ratio test (R = 0), the fast fracture occur phenomenon and the fatigue life are presented, the fatigue testing exerted in INSTRON 8801 machine. Finally which allows the knowledge their effect on the fatigue life, this residual change of dynamic behavior parameters can be used to predicted a crack size and diagnostic of blade.

Key Words
wind turbine blade; composite material; dynamic fatigue life; crack growth

Address
(1) Samir Lecheb, Abdelkader Nour, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Hicham Ghanem:
Laboratory of Engines Dynamics and Vibroacoustics, University of Boumerdes, Algeria;
(2) Hocine Kebir:
Laboratory Roberval, University of Technology Compiegne, UTC, France.

Abstract
In this article, nonlinear free vibration behaviour of functionally graded spherical panel is analysed. A nonlinear mathematical model is developed based on higher order shear deformation theory for shallow shell by taking Green-Lagrange type of nonlinear kinematics. The material properties of functionally graded material are assumed to be varying continuously in transverse direction and evaluated using Voigt micromechanical model in conjunction with power-law distribution. The governing equation of the shell panel is obtained using Hamilton's principle and discretised with the help of nonlinear finite element method. The desired responses are evaluated through a direct iterative method. The present model has been validated by comparing the frequency ratio (nonlinear frequency to linear frequency) with those available published literatures. Finally, the effect of geometrical parameters (curvature ratio, thickness ratio, aspect ratio and support condition), power law indices and amplitude of vibration on the frequency ratios of spherical panel have been discussed through numerical experimentations.

Key Words
nonlinear flexural vibration; finite element analysis; FGM; HSDT; Green-Lagrange

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India.

Abstract
Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs) have been accepted widely as an effective lateral load resisting system. For seismic performance evaluation of a multi-story building with SPSWs, detailed finite element models or a strip model can be used to represent the SPSW components. However, such models often require significant effort for tall or medium height buildings. In order to simplify the analysis process, discrete elements for the framing members can be used. This paper presents development of a simplified equivalent braced model to study the behavior of the SPSWs. The proposed model is expected to facilitate a simplification to the structural modeling of large buildings with SPSWs in order to evaluate the seismic performance using regular structural analysis tools. It is observed that the proposed model can capture the global behavior of the structures quite accurately and potentially aid in the performance-based seismic design of SPSW buildings.

Key Words
steel-plate-shear-wall; simplified modeling; strut and tie; non-linearity; finite element method

Address
Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Abstract
This paper presents investigations on the hysteretic behavior of concrete-filled circular tubular (CFCT) T-joints subjected to axial cyclic loading at brace end. In the experimental study, four specimens are fabricated and tested. The chord members of the tested specimens are filled with concrete along their full length and the braces are hollow section. Failure modes and load-displacement hysteretic curves of all the specimens obtained from experimental tests are given and discussed. Some indicators, in terms of stiffness deterioration, strength deterioration, ductility and energy dissipation, are analyzed to assess the seismic performance of CFCT joints. Test results indicate that the failures are primarily caused by crack cutting through the chord wall, convex deformation on the chord surface near brace/chord intersection and crushing of the core concrete. Hysteretic curves of all the specimens are plump, and no obvious pinching phenomenon is found. The energy dissipation result shows that the inelastic deformation is the main energy dissipation mechanism. It is also found from experimental results that the CFCT joints show clear and steady stiffness deterioration with the increase of displacement after yielding. However, all the specimens do not perform significant strength deterioration before failure. The effect of joint geometric parameters β and γ of the four specimens on hysteretic performance is also discussed.

Key Words
concrete-filled circular tubular (CFCT) T-joints; hysteretic behavior; experimental study; failure mode; energy dissipation

Address
(1) Liu Hongqing, Shao Yongbo, Lu Ning:
School of Civil Engineering, Yantai University, Qingquan Road 32#, Laishan District, Yantai, Shandong Province, P.R. China, 264005;
(2) Wang Qingli:
School of Civil Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Hunnandong Road 9#, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, P.R. China, 110168.

Abstract
This work attempts to implement multiple regression analysis (MRA) for modeling and predicting the shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web. It was recognized from theoretical and experimental results that the shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web is complicated and affected by several parameters. A model that predicts the shear strength of a steel beam with corrugated web with reasonable accuracy was sought. To that end, a total of 93 experimental data points were collected from different sources. Then mathematical models for the key response parameter (shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web) were established via MRA in terms of different input geometric, loading and materials parameters. Results indicate that, with a minimal processing of data, MRA could accurately predict the shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web within a 95% confidence interval, having an R2 value of 0.93 and passing the F- and t-tests.

Key Words
shear strength; steel beams; trapezoidal corrugated web; regression

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE.

Abstract
An analytical and experimental investigation is performed into the mechanical behavior of carbon-fiber/epoxy woven coned annular disk springs. An analytical approach is presented for predicting the deformation behavior of disk springs of specially orthotropic laminates with arbitrary geometric parameters. In addition, an analytical methodology is proposed for obtaining the deformation behavior of a stack of disk springs. The methodology is capable of accounting for parallel and series arrangements for uniform and irregular stacks. Element and assembly experimental results are used to validate the proposed method showing how to achieve flexible spring rates at various deflections ranges. This manuscript also provides guidelines for design and validation of disk spring assemblies.

Key Words
nonlinear disk springs; mechanical behavior; manufacturing; specially orthotropic materials; structural behavior

Address
Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 N Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53211 USA.

Abstract
In this scientific work, constructing of a novel shear deformation beam model including the stretching effect is of concern for flexural and free vibration responses of functionally graded beams. The particularity of this model is that, in addition to considering the transverse shear deformation and the stretching effect, the zero transverse shear stress condition on the beam surface is assured without introducing the shear correction parameter. By employing the Hamilton's principle together with the concept of the neutral axe\'s position for such beams, the equations of motion are obtained. Some examples are performed to demonstrate the effects of changing gradients, thickness stretching, and thickness to length ratios on the bending and vibration of functionally graded beams.

Key Words
functionally graded beam; shear deformation theory; stretching effect; neutral surface position

Address
(1) Mustapha Meradjah, Abdelhakim Kaci, Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria;
(2) Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari, Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Laboratoire des Structures et Matériaux Avances dans le Génie Civil et Travaux Publics, Université de Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculteéde Technologie, Département de génie civil, Algeria;
(3) S.R. Mahmoud:
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia;
(4) S.R. Mahmoud:
Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Sohag, Egypt.


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com