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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 1, July 2015
 

Abstract
The buckling analysis is presented for non-homogeneous (NH) orthotropic truncated conical shells subjected to combined loading of axial compression and external pressure. The governing equations have been obtained for the non-homogeneous orthotropic truncated conical shell, the material properties of which vary continuously in the thickness direction. By applying Superposition and Galerkin methods to the governing equations, the expressions for critical loads (axial, lateral, hydrostatic and combined) of non-homogeneous orthotropic truncated conical shells with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The results are verified by comparing the obtained values with those in the existing literature. Finally, the effects of non-homogeneity, material orthotropy, cone semi-vertex angle and other geometrical parameters on the values of the critical combined load have been studied.

Key Words
buckling; stability; functionally graded; material properties; axial compression; lateraltorsional-buckling; numerical analysis; composite structures

Address
(1) A.H. Sofiyev:
Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey;
(2) N. Kuruoglu:
Department of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract
Push-out tests have been conducted on 18 rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns with the aim of studying the bond behaviour between the steel tube and the concrete infill. The obtained load-slip response and the distribution of the interface bond stress along the member length and around the cross-section for various load levels, as derived from measured axial strain gradients in the steel tube, are reported. Concrete compressive strength, interface length, cross-sectional dimensions and different interface conditions were varied to assess their effect on the ultimate bond stress. The test results indicate that lubricating the steel-concrete interface always had a significant adverse effect on the interface bond strength. Among the other variables considered, concrete compressive strength and cross-section size were found to have a pronounced effect on the bond strength of non-lubricated specimens for the range of cross-section geometries considered, which is not reflected in the European structural design code for composite structures, EN 1994-1-1 (2004). Finally, based on nonlinear regression of the test data generated in the present study, supplemented by additional data obtained from the literature, an empirical equation has been proposed for predicting the average ultimate bond strength for SHS and RHS filled with normal strength concrete.

Key Words
composite construction; concrete filled steel tubes; interface bond strength; interface condition; push-out test; slip

Address
(1) Xiushu Qu:
School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 100044, PR China;
(2) Xiushu Qu, Zhihua Chen:
School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, PR China;
(3) David A. Nethercot, Leroy Gardner:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK;
(4) Marios Theofanous:
School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, UK.

Abstract
There are many studies on the optimization of steel trusses in literature; and, a large number of them include a shape optimization. However, only a few of these studies are focused on the prestressed steel trusses. Therefore, this paper aims to determine the amounts of the material and cost savings in steel plane trusses in the case of prestressing. A parallel-chord simply supported steel truss is handled as an example to evaluate the used approach. It is considered that prestressing tendon is settled under the bottom bar, between two end supports, using deviators. Cross-sections of the truss members and height of the truss are taken as the design variables. The prestress losses are calculated in two steps as instantaneous losses and time-dependent losses. Tension increment in prestressing tendon due to the external loads is also considered. A computer program based on genetic algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. The handled truss is optimized for different span lengths and different tendon eccentricities using the coded program. The effects of span length and eccentricity of tendon on prestressed truss optimization are investigated. The results of different solutions are compared with each other and those of the non-prestressed solution. It is concluded that the amounts of the material and the cost of a steel plane truss can be reduced up to 19.9% and 14.6%, respectively, by applying prestressing.

Key Words
prestressed steel; prestressed truss; plane truss; genetic algorithm; optimization

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Namık Kemal University, 59860 Tekirdağ Turkey.

Abstract
Since there are several places located in active seismic zones in the world, serious damages and losses have happened due to major scaled earthquakes. Especially, structures having different irregularities have been severely damaged or collapsed during these seismic events. Behavior of existing structures under several loading conditions is not completely determined due to some uncertainties. This situation reveals the importance of design and analysis of structures under seismic effects. Several non-linear static procedures have been developed in recent years. Determination of the seismic safety of the existing structures and strengthening techniques are significant civil engineering problems Non-linear methods are defined in codes to determine the performance levels of structures more accurately. However, displacement based ones give more realistic results. These methods provide more reliable evaluation possibilities for existing structures with developing computer technology. In this study, non-linear performance analysis of existing and strengthened steel structures by X shaped bracing members with 3, 5 and 7 stories which have soft story irregularity is performed according to FEMA-356 and Turkish Earthquake Code-2007. Damage ratios of the structural members and global performance levels are determined as well as modal properties and story drift ratios after non-linear finite elements analysis for each structure.

Key Words
non-linear methods; performance analysis; steel structures; strengthening techniques

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey.

Abstract
In this paper, optimization of cylindrical shells under external pressure to minimize its weight has been studied. Buckling equations are based on standard of ABS underwater vehicles. Dimension and type of circumferential stiffeners, and its distance from each other are assumed as variables of optimization problem. Considering the extent of these variables, genetic algorithms have been used for optimization. To study the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the shell and its fabrication according to the existing standards, geometrical and construction as well as stress and buckling constraints have been used in optimization algorithm and also penalty functions are applied to eliminate weak model. Finally, the best model which has the minimum weight considering the applied pressure has been presented.

Key Words
hydrostatic pressure; genetic algorithms; stiffener ring; buckling; cylindrical shell

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317-51176, Iran.

Abstract
The thermomechanical bending response of anti-symmetric cross-ply composite plates is investigated by the use of the simple four variable sinusoidal plate theory. The theory accounts for sinusoidal distribution of transverse shear stress, and satisfies the free transverse shear stress conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factor. By dividing the transverse displacement into bending and shear parts, the number of unknowns and governing equations for the present theory is reduced, significantly facilitating engineering analysis. The validity of the present theory is demonstrated by comparison with solutions available in the literature. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the behavior of the system. The influences of aspect ratio, side-to-thickness ratio, thermal expansion coefficients ratio and stacking sequence on the thermally induced response are studied. The present study is relevant to aerospace, chemical process and nuclear engineering structures which may be subjected to intense thermal loads.

Key Words
thermo-mechanical load; laminated plates; analytical modelling

Address
(1) F. Chattibi, Kouider Halim Benrahou, Abdelkader Benachour, K. Nedri, Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria;
(2) Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Laboratoire des Structures et Matériaux Avancés dans le Génie Civil et Travaux Publics, Université de Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculté de Technologie, Département de Génie Civil, Algeria.

Abstract
This paper first presents an experimental study of twelve specimens for their creep performance, including nine concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns and three plain concrete columns, subjected to three levels of sustained axial loads for 1710 days. Then, the creep strain curves are predicted from the existing creep models including the ACI 209 model, the MC 78 model, and the MC 90 model, and further a fitted creep model is obtained by experimental data. Finally, the creep effects of a CFST arch bridge are analyzed to compare the accuracy of the existing creep models. The experimental results show that the creep strains in CFST specimens are far less than in the plain concrete specimens and still increase after two years. The ACI 209 model outperforms the MC 78 model and the MC 90 model when predicting the creep behavior of the CFST specimens. Analysis results indicate that the creep effects in the CFST arch bridge are significant. The deflections and stresses calculated by the ACI 209 model are the closest to the fitted model in the three existing models, demonstrating that the ACI 209 model can be used for creep analysis of CFST arch bridges and can meet the engineering accuracy requirement when lack of experimental data.

Key Words
Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST); creep experiment; creep performance; creep effect; CFST arch bridge

Address
(1) Meng-Gang Yang:
School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, P.R. China;
(2) C.S. Cai:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA;
(3) Yong Chen:
Shanghai Municipal Engineering Design Institute (Group) Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200092, P.R. China.

Abstract
Easy detection and evaluation of defect in the tube structure is a continuous problem and remains a significant demand in tube inspection technologies. This study is aimed to automate defect detection using the pattern recognition approach based on the classification of high frequency stress wave signals. The stress wave signals from vibrational impact excitation on several tube conditions were captured to identify the defect in ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes. The variation in stress wave propagation was captured by a high frequency sensor. Stress wave signals from four tubes with artificial defects of different depths and one reference tube were classified using the autoregressive (AR) algorithm. The results were demonstrated using a dendrogram. The preliminary research revealed the natural arrangement of stress wave signals were grouped into two clusters. The stress wave signals from the healthy tube were grouped together in one cluster and the signals from the defective tubes were classified in another cluster. This approach was effective in separating different stress wave signals and allowed quicker and easier defect identification and interpretation in steel tubes.

Key Words
autoregressive; defect identification; impact excitation; pattern recognition; stress wave

Address
(1) Zakiah A. Halim:
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia;
(2) Nordin Jamaludin, Syarif Junaidi:
Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials, Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia;
(3) Syed Yusainee:
Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract
Twelve large-scale composite deck slabs were instrumented and tested in a cantilever diaphragm configuration to assess the effect of fibers and welded wire mesh (WWM) on the in-plane shear capacity of composite deck slabs. The slabs were constructed with reentrant decking profile and reinforced with different types and dosages of secondary reinforcements: Conventional welded wire mesh (A142 and A98); synthetic macro-fibers (dosages of 3 kg/m3 and 5.3 kg/m3); and hooked-end steel fibers with a dosage of 15 kg/m3. The deck orientation relative to the main beam (strong and weak) was also considered in this study. Fibers and WWM were found efficient in distributing the applied load to the whole matrix, inducing multiple cracking, thereby enhancing the strength and ductility of composite deck slabs. The test results indicate that fibers increased the slab

Key Words
steel decking; composite slab; fiber-reinforced concrete; diaphragms; in-plane shear

Address
(1) Salah Altoubat, Samer Barakat:
Department of Civil& Environmental Engineering, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE;
(2) Hisseine Ousmane:
Department of Architectural Engineering, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE.

Abstract
This study presents an analytical investigation on the seismic response of a medium-rise buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) under the near-fault ground motions. A seven-story BRBF is designed as per the current code provisions for five different combinations of brace configurations and beam-column connections. Two types of brace configurations (i.e., Chevron and Double-X) are considered along with a combination of the moment-resisting and the non-moment-resisting beam-to-column connections for the study frame. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out for all study frames for an ensemble of forty SAC near-fault ground motions. The main parameters evaluated are the interstory and residual drift response, brace displacement ductility, and plastic hinge mechanisms. Fragility curves are developed using log-normal probability density functions for all study frames considering the interstory drift ratio and residual drift ratio as the damage parameters. The average interstory drift response of BRBFs with Double-X brace configurations significantly exceeded the allowable drift limit of 2%. The maximum displacement ductility characteristics of BRBs is efficiently utilized under the seismic loading if these braces are arranged in the Double-X configurations instead of Chevron configurations in BRBFs located in the near-fault regions. However, BRBFs with the Double-X brace configurations exhibit the higher interstory drift and residual drift response under near-fault ground motions due to the formation of plastic hinges in the columns and beams at the intermediate story levels.

Key Words
buckling-restrained braces; fragility curves; near-fault regions; seismic analysis; steel frames

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India.

Abstract
The sensitivity-based finite element model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection of structures based on measured modal parameters. Finding an optimization technique with high efficiency and fast convergence is one of the key issues for model updating-based damage detection. A new simple and computationally efficient optimization algorithm is proposed and applied to damage detection by using finite element model updating. The proposed method combines the Gauss- Newton method with region truncation of each iterative step, in which not only the constraints are introduced instead of penalty functions, but also the searching steps are restricted in a controlled region. The developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerically simulated 25-bar truss structure, and the results have been compared and verified with those obtained from the trust region method. In order to investigate the reliability of the proposed method in damage detection of structures, the influence of the uncertainties coming from measured modal parameters on the statistical characteristics of detection result is investigated by Monte-Carlo simulation, and the probability of damage detection is estimated using the probabilistic method.

Key Words
damage detection; model updating; region truncation; uncertainty; probability

Address
(1) Yalan Xu, Yu Qian:
School of Electronic & Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, P.R. China;
(2) Gangbing Song, Kongming Guo:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004, USA.

Abstract
Results from an experimental study on the seismic response of six composite reinforced concrete column-to-steel beam interior joints are presented. The primary variable investigated is the details in the joint. For the basic specimen, the main subassemblies of the beam and column are both continuous, and the steel beam flanges extended to the joint are partly cut off. Transverse beam, steel band plates, cove plates, X shape reinforcement bars and end plates are used in the other five specimens, respectively. After the joint steel panel yielded, two failure modes were observed during the test: local failure in Specimens 1, 2 and 4, shear failure in Specimens 3, 5 and 6. Specimens 6, 3, 5 and 4 have a better strength and deformation capacity than the other two specimens for the effectiveness of their subassemblies. For Specimens 2 and 4, though the performance of strength degradation and stiffness degradation are not as good as the other four specimens, they all have excellent energy dissipation capacity comparing to the RC joint, or the Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) joint. Based on the test result, some suggestions are presented for the design of composite RCS joint.

Key Words
composite structure; joint details; earthquake resistant structures; seismic behavior; capacity; shear failure

Address
College of Civil Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology, 13 Yanta Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710055, China.


Abstract
Despite the proliferation of the industrial application of steel tubes, the effect of collision on the surface of steel tubes subject to cyclic loading has largely remained untouched. This paper studies the fatigue behavior of steel tubes which are impacted by an external object. A dent imperfection caused by a collision was modeled and fatigue tests were conducted using a MTS machine. Fatigue life as well as the failure modes were thoroughly discussed in a way that the fatigue life of the dented tubes with similar geometrical specifications at full-scale can be generalized.

Key Words
thin tubes; fatigue life; dent and collision; failure mode

Address
School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia.

Abstract
In this study, we try to compare different intensity measures for evaluating nonlinear response of bridge structure. This paper presents seismic analytic fragility of a three-span concrete girder highway bridge. A complete detail of bridge modeling parameters and also its verification has been presented. Fragility function considers the relationship of intensities of the ground motion and probability of exceeding certain state of damage. Incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) has been subjected to the bridge from medium to strong ground motions. A suite of 20 earthquake ground motions with different range of PGAs are used in nonlinear dynamic analysis of the bridge. Complete sensitive analyses have been done on the response of bridge and also efficiency and practically of them are studied to obtain a proficient intensity measure for these types of structure by considering its sensitivity to the period of the bridge. Three dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge is developed and analyzed. The numerical results show that the bridge response is very sensitive to the earthquake ground motions when PGA and Sa (Ti, 5%) are used as intensity measure (IM) and also indicated that the failure probability of the bridge system is dominated by the bridge piers.

Key Words
highway bridge; fragility curve; nonlinear time history analysis; finite element modeling

Address
(1) M. Bayat, F. Daneshjoo:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) N. Nistico:
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Roma, Italy.


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