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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 6, December 2015
 

Abstract
A higher order analytical solution for static analysis of a truncated conical composite sandwich panel subjected to different loading conditions was presented in this paper which was based on a new improved higher order sandwich panel theory. Bending analysis of sandwich structures with flexible cores subjected to concentrated load, uniform distributed load on a patch, harmonic and uniform distributed loads on the top and/or bottom face sheet of the sandwich structure was also investigated. For the first time, bending analysis of truncated conical composite sandwich panels with flexible cores was performed. The governing equations were derived by principle of minimum potential energy. The first order shear deformation theory was used for the composite face sheets and for the core while assuming a polynomial description of the displacement fields. Also, the in-plane hoop stresses of the core were considered. In order to assure accuracy of the present formulations, convergence of the results was examined. Effects of types of boundary conditions, types of applied loads, conical angles and fiber angles on bending analysis of truncated conical composite sandwich panels were studied. As, there is no research on higher order bending analysis of conical sandwich panels with flexible cores, the results were validated by ABAQUS FE code. The present approach can be linked with the standard optimization programs and it can be used in the iteration process of the structural optimization. The proposed approach facilitates investigation of the effect of physical and geometrical parameters on the bending response of sandwich composite structures.

Key Words
static; truncated conical sandwich panels; improved higher order sandwich panel theory; point load; uniform distributed load on a patch

Address
Department of Structural Analysis and Simulation, Space research institute, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran-Karaj Highway, Post box: 14665-143, Tehran, Iran.


Abstract
Steel conical shells have long been used in various parts of different structures. Sensitivity to the initial geometrical imperfection has been one of the most significant issues on the stability of these structures, which has made them highly vulnerable to the buckling. Most attention has been devoted to structures under normal fabrication related imperfections. Notwithstanding, the challenges of large local imperfections – presented herein as dent-shaped imperfections – have not been a focus yet for these structures. This study aims to provide experimental data on the effect of such imperfections on the buckling capacity of these shells under axial compression. The results show changes in the buckling mode and the capacity for such damaged thin specimens as is outlined in this paper, with an average overall capacity reduction of 11%.

Key Words
conical steel shells; buckling; axial loading; dent; local imperfection

Address
School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia.

Abstract
In this study, a progressive damage modeling is developed to predict functional failure pressure of GRP pipes subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure. The modeling procedure predicts both first-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure associated with the weepage phenomenon. The modeling procedure is validated using experimental observations. The random parameters attributed to the filament winding production process are identified. Consequently, stochastic simulation is conducted to investigate the influence of induced inconsistencies on the functional failure pressures of GRP pipes. The obtained results are compared to realize the degree to which random parameters affect the performance of the pipe in operation.

Key Words
composite pipes; functional failure; progressive modeling; stochastic analysis

Address
Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, End of North Karegar St., Tehran, 1439955941, Iran.

Abstract
The application of composite steel-concrete slabs with profiled steel sheeting has increased, due to the various advantages in relation to reinforced concrete slabs such as, the reduced thickness, the reduced amount of lost formwork needed, as well as the speed of execution. The loss of longitudinal shear resistance is, generally, the governing design mode for simply supported spans of common lengths. For common distributed loadings, the composite behaviour is influenced by the partial shear connection between the concrete and the steel sheeting. The present research work is intended to contribute to improving the ultimate limit state behaviour of composite slabs using end anchorage. Eurocode 4, Part 1.1 (EN 1994-1-1) provides an analytical methodology for predicting the increase of longitudinal resistance, achieved by using shear studs welded through the steel sheeting as the end anchorage mechanism. The code does not supply an analytical methodology for other kinds of end anchorage so, additional tests or studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of these types of anchorage. The influence of end anchorage mechanisms provided by transverse rebars at the ends of simply supported composite slabs is analysed in this paper. Two experimental programmes were carried out, the first to determine the resistance provided by the new end anchorage mechanism and the second to analyse its influence on the behaviour of simply supported composite slabs.

Key Words
composite slab; end anchorage; longitudinal shear; improvement; partial shear connection

Address
ISISE, Civil Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Abstract
When precast concrete infill panels are connected to steel frames at discrete locations, interaction at the structural interface is neither complete nor absent. The contribution of precast concrete infill panels to the lateral stiffness and strength of steel frames can be significant depending on the quality, quantity and location of the discrete interface connections. This paper presents preliminary experimental and finite element results of an investigation into the composite behaviour of a square steel frame with a precast concrete infill panel subject to lateral loading. The panel is connected at the corners to the ends of the top and bottom beams. The Frame-to-Panel-Connection, FPC4 between steel beam and concrete panel consists of two parts. A T-section with five achor bars welded to the top of the flange is cast in at the panel corner at a forty five degree angle. The triangularly shaped web of the T-section is reinforced against local buckling with a stiffener plate. The second part consists of a triangular gusset plate which is welded to the beam flange. Two bolts acting in shear connect the gusset plate to the web of the T-section. This way the connection can act in tension or compression. Experimental pull-out tests on individual connections allowed their load deflection characteristics to be established. A full scale experiment was performed on a one-storey one-bay 3 by 3 m infilled frame structure which was horizontally loaded at the top. With the characteristics of the frame-to-panel connections obtained from the experiments on individual connections, finite element analyses were performed on the infilled frame structures taking geometric and material non-linear behaviour of the structural components into account. The finite element model yields reasonably accurate results. This allows the model to be used for further parametric studies.

Key Words
racking shear resistance; infilled steel frame; concrete panel; panel-to-frame connection; full scale tests; finite element model

Address
Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Abstract
In this paper, the effect of material-temperature dependent on the wave propagation of a cantilever beam composed of functionally graded material (FGM) under the effect of an impact force is investigated. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. Material properties of the beam are temperature-dependent and change in the thickness direction. The Kelvin–Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The considered problem is investigated within the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange\'s equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain and frequency domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In order to establish the accuracy of the present formulation and results, the comparison study is performed with the published results available in the literature. Good agreement is observed. In the study, the effects of material distributions and temperature rising on the wave propagation of the FGM beam are investigated in detail.

Key Words
wave propagation; temperature dependent physical properties; functionally graded materials; beam

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Bursa Technical University, 152 Evler Mah. Eğitim Cad. 1. Damla Sok. No:2/10, Bursa, 16330, Turkey.

Abstract
Mixed structures consist of two parts: a lower part and an upper part. The lower part is usually made of concrete while the upper part is made of steel. Analyzing these structures is complicated and code-based design of them has many associated problems. In this research, the seismic behavior of mixed structures which have reinforced concrete frames and shear walls in their lower storeys and steel frames with bracing in their upper storeys were studied. For this purpose, seventeen structures in three groups of 5, 9 and 15 storey structures with different numbers of concrete and steel storeys were designed. Static pushover analysis, linear dynamic analysis and incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) using 15 earthquake records were performed by OpenSees software. Seismic parameters such as period, response modification factor and ductility factor were then obtained for the mixed (hybrid) structures using more than 4600 nonlinear dynamic analysis and used in the regression analysis for achieving proper formula. Finally, some formulas, effective in designing such structures, are presented for the mentioned parameters. According to the results obtained from this research, the response modification factor values of mixed structures are lower compared to those of steel or concrete ones with the same heights. This fact might be due to the irregularities of stiffness, mass, etc., at different heights of the structure. It should be mentioned that for the first time, the performance and seismic response of such structures were studied against real earthquake accelerations using nonlinear dynamic analysis, andresponse modification factor was obtained by IDA.

Key Words
mixed structure; response modification factor; overstrength factor; ductility factor; transition storey

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, No.1346, Vali Asr Street, Mirdamad Intersection, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
This paper presents a contribution to improving an analytical thermo-mechanical modeling of Oxley's machining theory of orthogonal metals cutting, which objective is the prediction of the cutting forces, the average stresses, temperatures and the geometric quantities in primary and secondary shear zones. These parameters will then be injected into the developed model of Karas et al. (2013) to predict temperature distributions at the tool-chip-workpiece interface. The amendment to Oxley's modified model is the reduction of the estimation of time-related variables cutting process such as cutting forces, temperatures in primary and secondary shear zones and geometric variables by the introduction the constitutive equation of Johnson-Cook model. The model-modified validation is performed by comparing some experimental results with the predictions for machining of 0.38% carbon steel.

Key Words
orthogonal metals cutting; Oxley's theory; analytical modeling; Johnson-Cook model; temperature distributions

Address
(1) Abdelkader Karas, Redha Mazouzi:
Khemis Miliana University, FIMA Laboratory, 44225, Algeria;
(2) Mohamed Bouzit:
Laboratory of Applied Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering USTO-MB, Oran, Algeria;
(3) Abdelkader Karas, Mustapha Belarbi:
University of Tiaret, Faculty of Sciences Appliquées, Algeria.

Abstract
With the improvement of the quality of construction materials and the development of construction technologies, large-scale long-span steel frame buildings have been built recently. The P.E.B system using tapered members is being employed as an economically-efficient long-span structure owing to its advantage of being able to distribute stress appropriately depending on the size of sectional areas of members. However, in December 2005 and in February 2014, P.E.B buildings collapsed due to sudden loads such as snow loads and wind gusts. In this study, the design and construction of the P.E.B system in Korea were analyzed and its structural safety was evaluated using the finite element analysis program to suggest how to improve the P.E.B system in order to promote the efficient and rational application of the system.

Key Words
P.E.B. (Pre-Engineered Metal Building) system; tapered deep beam; lateral-torsional buckling; local buckling; ductile design

Address
(1) Seong-Hui Lee:
Office Equipment Examination Division, Patent Examination Bureau I, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Gov. Complex Daejeon Bldg. 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon, 35208, Korea;
(2) Young-Ho Kim:
Institute of R&D, Jiseung Consultant Co., Ltd., 55, Bongeunsa-ro 7-gil Gangnam-gu Seoul, 06128, Korea;
(3) Sung-Mo Choi:
School of Architectural Engineering, University of Seoul, 163, seoulsiripdae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02504, Korea.

Abstract
The frequency selective surface (FSS) embedded hybrid composite materials have been developed to provide excellent mechanical and specific electromagnetic properties. Radar absorbing structures (RASs) are an example material that provides both radar absorbing properties and structural characteristics. The absorbing efficiency of an RAS can be improved using selected materials having special absorptive properties and structural characteristics and can be in the form of multi-layers or have a certain stacking sequence. However, residual stresses occur in FSS embedded composite structures after co-curing due to a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the FSS and the composite material. In this study, to develop an RAS, the thermal residual stresses of FSS embedded composite structures were analyzed using finite element analysis, considering the effect of stacking sequence of composite laminates with square loop (SL) and double square loop (DSL) FSS patterns. The FSS radar absorbing efficiency was measured in the K-band frequency range of 21.6 GHz. Residual stress leads to a change in the deformation of the FSS pattern. Using these results, the effect of transmission characteristics with respect to the deformation on FSS pattern was analyzed using an FSS Simulator.

Key Words
fiber-reinforced composite materials; radar absorbing structure; thermal residual stress; FSS-embedded composite structures; square loop; double square loop

Address
(1) In-Han Hwang, Heoung-Jae Chun:
Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seodaemun, Seoul 120-749, Korea;
(2) Ik-Pyo Hong:
Electric wave Engineering, Kongju University, Seobook, Kongju 1223-24, Korea;
(3) Yong-Bae Park:
Electronic Engineering, Ajou University, Youngdong, Suwon 443-749, Korea;
(4) Yoon-Jae Kim:
Agency for Defence Development, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-152, Korea.

Abstract
This article provides an analysis of the complex character of stress distribution in concrete in stub columns consisting of two HE160A steel sections held together with batten plates and filled with concrete. In such columns, evaluating the effect of concrete confinement and determining the extent of this confinement constitute a substantially complex problem. The issue was considered in close correspondence to rectangular cross section tubular elements filled with concrete, concrete-encased columns, as well as to steel-concrete columns in which reinforcement bars are connected with shackles. In the analysis of concrete confinement in two-chord columns, elements of computational methods developed for different types of composite cross sections were adopted. The achieved analytical results were compared with calculations based on test results.

Key Words
composite structures; steel-concrete columns; two-chords battened columns; concrete confinement; load bearing capacity

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Barcol hardness (H) and flexural modulus (E) degradation of composite sheets subjected to flexural fatigue. The resin transfer molding (RTM) method was used to produce 3-mm-thick composite sheets with fiber volume fraction of 44%. The composite sheets were subjected to flexural fatigue tests and Barcol scale hardness measurements. After these tests, the stiffness and hardness degradations were investigated in the composite sheets that failed after around one million cycles (stage III). Flexural modulus degradation values were in the range of 0.41-0.42 with the corresponding measured hardness degradation values in the range of 0.25-0.32 for the all fatigued composite sheets. Thus, a 25% reduction in the initial hardness and a 41% reduction in the initial flexural modulus can be taken as the failure criteria. The results showed that a reasonably well-defined relationship between Barcol hardness and flexural modulus degradation in the distance range.

Key Words
glass-fiber; fatigue; hardness (H) and flexural modulus (E); degradation; hardness-stiffness relationship

Address
Department of Machine and Metal Technologies, Edremit Vocational School of Higher Education, Bal

Abstract
This paper presents the characterization of fatigue crack in the A283 Grade C steel using the MMM method by identifying the effects of magnetic flux leakage towards the crack growth rate, da/dN, and crack length.The previous and current research on the relation between MMM parameters and fatigue crack effect is still unclear and requires specific analysis to validate that. This method is considered to be a passive magnetic method among other Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods. The tension-tension fatigue test was conducted with a testing frequency of 10 Hz with 4 kN loaded, meanwhile the MMM response signals were captured using a MMM instrument. A correlation between the crack growth rate and magnetic flux leakage produces a sigmoid shape curve with a constant values which present the gradient, m value is in the ranges of 1.4357 to 4.0506, and the y-intercept, log C in the ranges of 4×10-7 to 0.0303. Moreover, a linear relation was obtained between the crack length and magnetic flux leakage which present the R-Squared values is at 0.830 to 0.978. Therefore, MMM method has their own capability to investigate and characterize the fatigue crack effects as a main source of fracture mechanism for ferrous-based materials.

Key Words
fatigue crack effect; MMM signal response; magnetic flux leakage; crack growth rate; crack length

Address
Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Build Environments, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract
No significant improvement has been observed on the seismic performance of the ordinary steel reinforced concrete (SRC) columns compared with the reinforced concrete (RC) columns mainly because I, H or core cross-shaped steel cannot provide sufficient confinement for core concrete. Two improved SRC columns by constructing with new-type section steel were put forward on this background: a cross-shaped steel whose flanges are in contact with concrete cover by extending the geometry of webs, and a rotated cross-shaped steel whose webs coincide with diagonal line of the column's section. The advantages of new-type SRC columns have been proved theoretically and experimentally, while construction measures and seismic behavior remain unclear when the new-type columns are joined onto SRC beams. Seismic behavior of SRC joints with new-type section steel were experimentally investigated by testing 5 specimens subjected to low reversed cyclic loading, mainly including the failure patterns, hysteretic loops, skeleton curves, energy dissipation capacity, strength and stiffness degradation and ductility. Effects of steel shape, load angel and construction measures on seismic behavior of joints were also analyzed. The test results indicate that the new-type joints display shear failure pattern under seismic loading, and steel and concrete of core region could bear larger load and tend to be stable although the specimens are close to failure. The hysteretic curves of new-type joints are plumper whose equivalent viscous damping coefficients and ductility factors are over 0.38 and 3.2 respectively, and this illustrates the energy dissipation capacity and deformation ability of new-type SRC joints are better than that of ordinary ones with shear failure. Bearing capacity and ductility of new-type joints are superior when the diagonal cross-shaped steel is contained and beams are orthogonal to columns, and the two construction measures proposed have little effect on the seismic behavior of joints.

Key Words
steel reinforced concrete (SRC) beam-column joint; cross-shaped steel with flanges; arranging along diagonal line; quasi-static test; shear failure; seismic behavior

Address
College of Civil Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, P.R. China.

Abstract
A concentric braced steel frame is a very efficient structural system because it requires relatively smaller amount of materials to resist lateral forces. However, primarily developed as a structural system to resist wind loads based on an assumption that the structure behaves elastically, a concentric braced frame possibly experiences the deterioration in energy dissipation after brace buckling and the brittle failure of braces and connections when earthquake loads cause inelastic behavior. Consequently, plastic deformation is concentrated in the floor where brace buckling occurs first, which can lead to the rupture of the structure. This study suggests reinforcing H-shaped braces with non-welded cold-formed stiffeners to restrain flexure and buckling and resist tensile force and compressive force equally. Weak-axis reinforcing members (2 pieces) developed from those suggested in previous studies (4 pieces) were used to reinforce the H-shaped braces in an inverted V-type braced frame. Monotonic loading tests, finite element analysis and cyclic loading tests were carried out to evaluate the structural performance of the reinforced braces and frames. The reinforced braces satisfied the AISC requirement. The reinforcement suggested in this study is expected to prevent the rupture of beams caused by the unbalanced resistance of the braces.

Key Words
V-type braced frames; non-welded; buckling restraining elements; cycle loading; seismic performance

Address
Department of Architectural Engineering, University of Seoul, Cheonnong-dong 90, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul, 130-743, Republic of Korea.

Abstract
Cold Formed Steel members are widely used in today's construction industry. However the structural behavior of light gauge high strength cold formed steel sections characterized by various buckling modes are not yet fully understood. Because of their simple forming and easy connections, the commonly used cold formed sections for beams are C and Z. However both these sections suffer from certain buckling modes. To achieve much improved structural performance of cold formed sections for beams both in terms of strength and stiffness, it is important to either delay or completely eliminate their various modes of buckling. This paper presents various innovative sectional profiles and stiffening arrangements for cold formed steel beams which would successfully contribute in delaying or eliminating various modes of premature buckling, thus considerably improving the load carrying capacity as well as stiffness characteristics of such innovative cold formed sections compared to conventional cold formed steel sections commonly used for beams.

Key Words
buckling modes; cold formed steel; failure modes; innovative sectional profiles; structural behavior; structural efficiency; ultimate load carrying capacity

Address
(1) M.A. Dar, J. Raju:
Structural Engineering, Kurukshetra University, Haryana, India;
(2) M. Yusuf, A.R. Dar:
Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Srinagar, J&K, India.


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