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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 6, December 2004
 

Abstract
The safety level of a structural system designed per code specifications can not be inferred directly from the reliability of members due to the load redistribution and nonlinear inelastic structural behavior. Comparison of the system and member reliability, which is scarce in the literature, is likely to indicate any possible inconsistency of design codes in providing safe and economical designs. Such a comparative study is presented in this study for moment resisting two-dimensional steel frames designed per AISC LRFD Specifications. The member reliability is evaluated using the resistance of the beam-column element and the elastic load effects that indirectly accounts for the second-order effects. The system reliability analysis is evaluated based on the collapse load factor obtained from a second-order inelastic analysis. Comparison of the system and member reliability is presented for several steel frames. Results suggest that the failure probability of the system is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the most critically loaded structural member, and that the difference between the system and member reliability depends on the structural configuration, degree of redundancy, and dead to live load ratio. Results also suggest that the system reliability is less sensitive to initial imperfections of the structure than the member reliability. Therefore, the system aspect should be incorporated in future design codes in order to achieve more reliability consistent designs.

Key Words
probability of failure; reliability index; system; frame; nonlinear; inelastic.

Address
C-FER Technologies, 200 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H2

Abstract
A simplified seismic design procedure for steel structures with buckling-restrained braces (BRB) was proposed based on the energy balance concept and the equal energy assumption. The input seismic energy was estimated from a design spectrum, and the elastic and hysteretic energy were computed using energy balance concept. The size of braces was determined so that the hysteretic energy demand was equal to the hysteretic energy dissipated by the BRB. The validity of using equivalent single-degree-offreedom systems to estimate seismic input and hysteretic energy demand in multi story structures with BRB was investigated through time-history analysis. The story-wise distribution pattern of hysteretic energyrndemands was also obtained and was applied in the design process. According to analysis results, the maximum displacements of the 3-story structure designed in accordance with the proposed procedure generally coincided with the target displacements on the conservative side. The maximum displacements of the 6- and 8-story structures, however, turned out to be somewhat smaller than the target values due to the participation of higher vibration modes.

Key Words
Department of Architectural Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, KorearnDepartment of Architectural Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul, Korea

Address
seismic design; buckling restrained braces; energy-balance concept; equal energy concept.

Abstract
In this article, a genetic algorithm based optimum design method is presented for non-linear steel frames with semi-rigid connections. The design algorithm obtains the minimum weight frame by selecting suitable sections from a standard set of steel sections such as European wide flange beams (i.e., HE sections). A genetic algorithm is employed as optimization method which utilizes reproduction, crossover and mutation operators. Displacement and stress constraints of Turkish Building Code for Steel Structures (TS 648, 1980) are imposed on the frame. The algorithm requires a large number of non-linear analyses of frames. The analyses cover both the non-linear behaviour of beam-to-column connection and P-∆ effects of beam-column members. The Frye and Morris polynomial model is used for modelling of semi-rigid connections. Two design examples with various type of connections are presented to demonstrate the application of the algorithm. The semi-rigid connection modelling results in more economical solutions than rigid connection modelling, but it increases frame drift.

Key Words
genetic algorithm; structural optimization; semi-rigid connections; steel design; unbraced frame.

Address
Civil Engineering Department, Dicle University, Muhendislik-MimarlIk Fakultesi, 21280 DiyarbakIr, Turkey

Abstract
Modular steel scaffolds are commonly used as supporting scaffolds in building construction, and traditionally, the load carrying capacities of these scaffolds are obtained from limited full-scale tests with little rational design. Structural failure of these scaffolds occurs from time to time due to inadequate design, poor installation and over-loads on sites. In general, multi-storey modular steel scaffolds are very slender structures which exhibit significant non-linear behaviour. Hence, secondary moments due to both P-? and P-∆ effects should be properly accounted for in the non-linear analyses. Moreover, while the structural behaviour of these scaffolds is known to be very sensitive to the types and the magnitudes of restraints provided from attached members and supports, yet it is always difficult to quantify these restraints in either test or practical conditions. The problem is further complicated due to the presence of initial geometrical imperfections in the scaffolds,rnincluding both member out-of-straightness and storey out-of-plumbness, and hence, initial geometrical imperfections should be carefully incorporated. This paper presents an extensive numerical study on three different approaches in analyzing and designing multi-storey modular steel scaffolds, namely, a) Eigenmode Imperfection Approach, b) Notional Load Approach, and c) Critical Load Approach. It should be noted that the three approaches adopt different ways to allow for the non-linear behaviour of the scaffolds in the presence of initial geometrical imperfections. Moreover, their suitability and accuracy in predicting the structural behaviour of modular steel scaffolds are discussed and compared thoroughly. The study aims to develop a simplified and yet reliable design approach for safe prediction on the load carrying capacities of multi-storey modular steel scaffolds, so that engineers can ensure safe and effective use of these scaffolds in building construction.

Key Words
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,rnHong Kong SAR, China

Address
modular steel scaffolds; initial geometrical imperfections; notional load approach; eigenmode imperfection approach; critical load approach.

Abstract
The flexibility of the connection between steel and concrete largely influences the globalrnbehaviour of the composite beam. Therefore the way the connection is modelled is the key issue in its structural analysis. Here we present a new strain-based finite element formulation in which we consider nonlinear material and contact models. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the formulation is proved with the comparison of our numerical results with the experimental results of Abdel Aziz (1986) obtained in a full-scale laboratory test. The shear connectors are assumed to follow a non-linear load−slip relationship proposed by Ollgaard et al. (1971). We introduce the notion of the generalized slip, which offers a better physical interpretation of the behaviour of the contact and gives an additional material slip parameter. An excellent agreement of experimental and numerical results is obtained, using only a few finite elements. This demonstrates that the present numerical approach is appropriate for the evaluation of behaviour of planar composite beams and perfect for practical calculations.

Key Words
steel-concrete composite beam; shear connection; interlayer slip; non-linear analysis; finite element method.

Address
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, SI-1115 Ljubljana, Slovenia


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