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CONTENTS
Volume 7, Number 1, February 2007
 

Abstract
Additional cutouts in the floorbeam webs of orthotropic plated bridge decks relieve the highly stressed lower flange of the ribs passing through these floorbeam webs from possible fatigue damage. Conversely, the floorbeam webs themselves suffer from high stress concentrations, especially along the free edges of the additional cutouts. These stresses result from a combination of direct introduction of vertical traffic loads in the weakened web and from the truss action of the floorbeam. The latter differs from a simple beam action due to the presence of the openings and corresponds more to the behaviour of a Vierendeel truss. Close assessment of the appearing stresses, highly relevant for fatigue resistance, requires the use of elaborate finite element modelling. However, a full finite element analysis merely provides the results of total stresses, leaving the researcher or designer the difficult task of finding the origin of these stress components. This paper presents a calculation method for cutout stresses based on a combination of a framework analysis and a two dimensional finite element analysis of much smaller parts of the floorbeam. This method provides more insight in the origin of the stress components, as well as it simplifies any comparison of different additional cutout geometries, independent of the floorbeam topology.

Key Words
orthotropic plated deck; floorbeams; closed ribs; web cutouts; stress concentrations.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Abstract
This paper presents results of a non-linear finite element analysis of axially loaded slender hollow structural section (HSS) columns, strengthened using high modulus carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) longitudinal sheets. The model was developed and verified against both experimental and other analytical models. Both geometric and material nonlinearities, which are attributed to the column\'s initial imperfection and plasticity of steel, respectively, are accounted for. Residual stresses have also been modeled. The axial strength in the experimental study was found to be highly dependent on the column\'s imperfection. Consequently, no specific correlation was established experimentally between strength gain and amount of CFRP. The model predicted the ultimate loads and failure modes quite reasonably and was used to isolate the effects of CFRP strengthening from the columns?imperfections. It was then used in a parametric study to examine columns of different slenderness ratios, imperfections, number of CFRP layers, and level of residual stresses. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of high modulus CFRP in increasing stiffness and strength of slender columns. While the columns?imperfections affect their actual strengths before and after strengthening, the percentage gain in strength is highly dependent on slenderness ratio and CFRP reinforcement ratio, rather than the value of imperfection.

Key Words
finite element; retrofit; HSS; slender; column; CFRP; imperfection; residual stresses.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Queen\'s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6

Abstract
The cold formed light-gauge profiled steel sheeting can offer considerable shear resistance acting in the steel building frame. This paper conducted the full-scale test on the shear behavior of stressed skin diaphragm using profiled sheeting connected by the self-tapping screws. A three-dimensional finite element model that simulates the stressed skin diaphragm was developed. The sheet was modeled using thin element model while the supporting members were simulated using beam elements. Fasteners were represented in the numerical model as equivalent springs. A joint test program was conducted to characterize the properties of these springs and results were reported in this study. Finite element model of the full-scale test was analyzed by use of the ANSYS package, considering nonlinearity caused by the large deflection and slip of fasteners. The experimental data was compared with the results acquired by the EUR formulas and finite element analysis.

Key Words
shear diaphragm; profiled sheeting; testing; finite element analysis.

Address
Yang Liu and Qilin Zhang; Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Weijun Qian; Zhejiang Jingong Steel Building Construction Group Co., Ltd., Shaoxing 312030, China

Abstract
This paper presents a analysis of the problem of optimal design of the beams with two I-type cross section shapes. These types of beams are simply supported and subject to pure bending. The strength and stability conditions were formulated and analytically solved in the form of mathematical equations. Both global and selected types of local stability forms were taken into account. The optimization problem was defined as bicriteria. The cross section area of the beam is the first objective function, while the deflection of the beam is the second. The geometric parameters of cross section were selected as the design variables. The set of constraints includes global and local stability conditions, the strength condition, and technological and constructional requirements in the form of geometric relations. The optimization problem was formulated and solved with the help of the Pareto concept of optimality. During the numerical calculations a set of optimal compromise solutions was generated. The numerical procedures include discrete and continuous sets of the design variables. Results of numerical analysis are presented in the form of tables, cross section outlines and diagrams. Results are discussed at the end of the work. These results may be useful for designers in optimal designing of thin-walled beams, increasing information required in the decision-making procedure.

Key Words
thin-walled beams; cold-formed beams; I-section beams; multicriteria optimization.

Address
Institute of Applied Mechanics, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan, Poland

Abstract
This study suggests modular composite profile beams, where the prefab concept is applied to existing composite profile beams. The prefab concept produces a beam of desired size having two types of profile: side module and bottom module. Module section will improve construction efforts because it offers several benefits : reduction of deflections due to creep and shrinkage, which might be found in existing composite profile beams; increase in span/depth ratio; and free prefabrication of any required beams. Based on the established analysis theory of composite profile beams, an analysis theory of modular composite profile beams was suggested, and analysis values were compared with experimental ones. The behavior of individual modules with increase of load was measured with a strain gauge, and the shear connection ratio between modules was analyzed by using the measured values. As a result of experiment, it was found that theoretical flexural strength on condition of full connection was 57%-80% by connection of modules for each specimen, and it is expected that flexural strength will approximate the theoretical levels through further module improvement.

Key Words
modular; composite profile; prefabrication; flexural strength.

Address
Department of Architectural Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul, Korea


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