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CONTENTS
Volume 9, Number 2, April 2009
 

Abstract
This paper presents a simplified model to study post-buckling behaviours of the axially restrained steel column at elevated temperatures in fire. The contribution of axial deformation to the curvature of column section is included in theoretical equations. The possible unloading at the convex side of the column when buckling occurs is considered in the stress-strain relationship of steel at elevated temperatures. Parameters that affect structural behaviours of the axial restrained column in fire are studied. The axial restraint cause an increase in the axial force before the column buckles; the buckling temperature of restrained columns will be lower than non-restrained steel columns. However, the axial force of a restrained column decreases after the column buckles with the elevation of temperatures, so make use of the post-buckling behaviour can increase the critical temperature of restrained columns. Columns with temperature gradient across the section will produce lower axial force at elevated temperatures.

Key Words
Axial Restraint; Fire; Post-buckling; Critical temperature; Steel Column.

Address
Guo-Qiang Li; College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China, State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China
Peijun Wang; College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China, Building Department of Shandong University, Jinan, 250000, China
Hetao Hou; Building Department of Shandong University, Jinan, 250000, China

Abstract
It has been reported that more than thirty five percent of steel bridges in the USA are structurally deficient because of structural degradations. The degraded structures need either full replacement or rehabilitation such that they are able to provide the required services for a longer period of time. The cost for repair in most cases is far less than the cost of replacement. Moreover, repair method generally takes less time than replacement and also reduces service interruption time. Modern advanced composites have been used in aerospace and automotive fields since World War II. In the recent past, because of the high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio, these composite materials have been introduced to civil engineering infrastructures primarily for repair and rehabilitation of concrete structures. However, only a few preliminary studies on repair of corroded steel structures using theses composite materials are reported in the literature available in the public domain. Thus, in this study, a series of laboratory tests was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of this repair method using carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite. The paper discusses the test method and test results obtained from these tests.

Key Words
steel beam; corrosion; repair; carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite; strength; stiffness; bond; ductility.

Address
Meiling Chen and Sreekanta Das; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor,Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada

Abstract
This paper reports results of the structural response of empty steel tanks under vertical ground motions. The tanks are modeled using a finite element discretization using shell elements, and the vertical motion is applied and analyzed using nonlinear dynamics. Several excitation frequencies are considered, with emphasis on those that may lead to resonance of the roof. The computational results illustrate that as the base motion frequency is tuned with the frequency of the first roof-mode of the tank, the system displays large-amplitude displacements. For frequencies away from such mode, small amplitude displacements are obtained. The effect of the height of the cylinder on the dynamic response of the tank to vertical ground motion has also been investigated. The vertical acceleration of the ground motion that induces significant changes in the stiffness of the tank was found to be almost constant regardless of the height of the cylinder.

Key Words
dynamics; earthquakes; harmonic loads; shell structures; steel tanks.

Address
Juan C. Virella and Luis A. Godoy; Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Puerto Rico, Mayag?z, Puerto Rico 00681-9041

Abstract
This paper presents a modelling technique for the nonlinear analysis of composite steel-concrete beams with partial shear interaction. It extends the applicability of two stiffness elements previously derived by the authors using the direct stiffness method, i.e. the 6DOF and the 8DOF elements, to account for material nonlinearities. The freedoms are the vertical displacement, the rotation and the slip at both ends for the 6DOF stiffness element, as well as the axial displacement at the level of the reference axis for the 8DOF stiffness element. The solution iterative scheme is based on the secant method, with the convergence criteria relying on the ratios of the Euclidean norms of both forces and displacements. The advantage of the approach is that the displacement and force fields of the stiffness elements are extremely rich as they correspond to those required by the analytical solution of the elastic partial interaction problem, thereby producing a robust numerical technique. Experimental results available in the literature are used to validate the finite element proposed in the paper. For this purpose, those reported by Chapman and Balakrishnan (1964), Fabbrocino et al. (1998, 1999) and Ansourian (1981) are utilised; these consist of six simply supported beams with a point load applied at mid-span inducing positive bending moment in the beams, three simply supported beams with a point load applied at mid-span inducing negative bending moment in the beams, and six two-span continuous composite beams respectively. Based on these comparisons, a preferred degree of discretisation suitable for the proposed modelling technique expressed as a function of the ratio between the element length and depth is proposed, as is the number of Gauss stations needed. This allows for accurate prediction of the nonlinear response of composite beams.

Key Words
composite beams; nonlinear analysis; partial shear interaction; secant method; stiffness method.

Address
G. Ranzi; The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
M.A. Bradford; The University of New South Wales, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

Abstract
Two prestressed steel reinforced high performance concrete (SRC) beams, a nonprestressed SRC beam and a counterpart prestressed concrete beam were tested under low reversed cyclic loading to evaluate seismic performance of prestressed SRC beams. The failure modes, deformation restoring capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the prestressed SRC beams were discussed. Results showed that due to the effect of plastic deformations of steel beams encased in concrete, the three SRC beams exhibited residual deformation ratios ranging between 0.64 and 0.79, which were apparently higher than that of the prestressed concrete beam (0.33). The ductility coefficients of the prestressed SRC beams and the prestressed concrete beam ranged between 4.65 and 4.87, obviously lower than that of nonprestressed SRC beam (9.09), which indicated the steel beams influenced the ductility little while prestressing resulted in an apparent reduction in ductility. The amount of energy dissipated by the prestressed SRC beams was less than that dissipated by the non-prestressed SRC beam but much more than that dissipated by the prestressed concrete beam.

Key Words
steel reinforced concrete beam; prestressing; seismic performance; ductility; deformation restoring capacity; energy dissipation.

Address
Weichen Xue, Feng Yang and Liang Li; Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Abstract
This paper presents a study on the behavior and design of bolted stainless steel plates under in-plane tension. Using an experimentally validated finite element (FE) program strength of stainless steel bolted plates under tension is examined with an emphasis on plate bearing mode of failure. A numerical parametric study was carried out which includes examining the behavior of stainless steel plate models with various proportions, bolt locations and in two different material grades. The models were designed to fail particularly in bolt tear-out and material piling-up modes. In the numerical simulation of the models, non-linear stress-strain material behavior of stainless steel was considered by using expressions which represent the full range of strains up to the ultimate tensile strain. Using the results of the parametric study, the effect of variations in bolt positions, such as end and edge distance and bolt pitch distance on bearing resistance of stainless steel bolted plates under in-plane tension has been investigated. Finally, the results obtained are critically examined using design estimations of the currently available international design guidance.

Key Words
stainless steel; finite element analysis; bolted connection; bearing failure mode; strength reduction.

Address
G. Kiymaz; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Istanbul Kultur University,
Atak? Campus, Bakirk?, Istanbul, Turkey


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