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Volume 11, Number 5, May 2001

A new beam system comprising two cantilever stems and an interspan composite beam has
been developed and its design philosophy is described in this paper. The system provides the equivalent
of a semi-continuous beam without the requirement to calculate the moment rotation capacity of the
beam-to-column connection. The economy of braced frames using the system has been investigated and
compared with simple, continuous or semi-rigid systems. It is shown that the costs of the proposed system
are similar to the semi-rigid system and cheaper than both the simply supported and rigid beam systems.
Two tests have been carried out on 6 meter span beams, which also incorporated an asymmetric flange
steel section. The behaviour of the system is presented and the test results are compared with those
obtained from the theory.

Key Words
continuous stem girder system (csgs); asymmetric steel section beam (asb); economy of braced frames; semi-rigid connection.

Boksun Kim, Scott Sutherland School of Architecture, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QB, UK
Howard D Wright and Roy Cairns, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG, UK

Modern soft computing methods, such as neural networks, evolutionary models and fuzzy
logic, are mainly inspired by the problem solving strategies the biological systems use in nature. As such,
the soft computing methods are fundamentally different from the conventional engineering problem
solving methods, which are based on mathematics. In the author

Key Words
soft computing; newral networks; genetic algorithm; structural mechanics; inverse problems.

Jamshid Ghaboussi, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, U.S.A.

In this paper, the procedure for deriving an infinite element that is compatible with the
quadrilateral Q8 element is first summarized. Enhanced by a self mesh-expansion procedure for generating
the impedance matrices of different frequencies for the region extending to infinity, the infinite element is
used to simulate the far field of the soil-structure system. The structure considered here is of the box type
and the soils are either homogeneous or resting on a bedrock. Using the finite/infinite element approach, a
parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of open and in-filled trenches in reducing the
structural vibration caused by a train passing nearby, which is simulated as a harmonic line load. The key
parameters that dominate the performance of wave barriers in reducing the structural vibrations are
identified. The results presented herein serve as a useful guideline for the design of open and in-filled
trenches concerning wave reduction.

Key Words
finite/infinite element method; in-filled trench; infinite element; open trench; traffic-induced vibration; wave barrier.

Hsiao-Hui Hung, Jenny Kuo and Yeong-Bin Yang, Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

The effects of the initial imperfections on the nonlinear behaviors and ultimate strength of
the thin-walled members subjected to the axial loads, obtained by the finite element stability analysis, are
examined. As the initial imperfections, the buckling mode shapes of the members are adopted. The
buckling mode shapes of the thin-walled members are obtained by the transfer matrix method. In the
finite element stability analysis, isoparametric degenerated shell element is used, and the geometrical and
material nonlinearity are considered based on the Green Lagrange strain definition and the Prandtl-Reuss
stress-strain relation following the von Mises yield criterion. The U-, box- and I-section members
subjected to the axial loads are adopted for numerical examples, and the effects of the initial
imperfections on the nonlinear behaviors and ultimate strength of the members are examined.

Key Words
finite element stability analysis; initial imperfection; nonlinear behavior; thin-walled member; ultimate strength.

M. Ohga, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan
A. Takaue, Chodai Ltd., Takamatsu 760-0017, Japan
T. Shi gematsu and T. Hara, Tokuyama Technical College, Tokuyama 745-8585, Japan

A new p-adaptive analysis scheme for hp-clouds method is presented. In the scheme, refined
global equations are resolved into two parts, one of them being related to the newly appended dof

Key Words
meshless method; meshfree method; hp-clouds method; p-refinement; dof splitting; p-adaptive meshless method; DSPMM.

Myung-Seok Kang and Sung-Kie Youn, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Taejon 305-701, Korea

The numerical formulation of a two-phase interface element appropriate for porous lining
system is presented. The formulation is isoparametric and can be applied both for 2-D and 3-D analysis.

Key Words
Interface element; porous media; two-phase; lining system; finite element; consolidation; reinforcement; reservoir; landfill.

X. Liu, A. Scarpas and J. Blaauwendraad, Department of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628CN Delft, The Netherlands

Experimental investigation into the behaviour of half-scale brick masonry panels were
conducted under cyclic loading normal to the bed joint and parallel to the bed joint. For each cycle, full
reloading was performed with the cycle peaks coinciding approximately with the envelope curve.
Unloading, however, was carried out fully to zero stress level and partially to two different stress levels of
25 percent and 50 percent of peak stress. Stability point limit exhibits a unique stress-strain curve for full
unloading but it could not be established for partial unloading. Common point limit was established for all
unloading-reloading patterns considered, but its location depends on the stress level at which unloading is
carried to. Common point curves were found to follow an exponential formula, while residual strains
versus envelope strains can be expressed by a polynomial function of a single term. The relation between
residual strain and envelope strain can be used to determine the stress level at which deterioration due to
cyclic loading began.

Key Words
partial unloading; reloading; residual strain; common point; stability point.

Milad M. AlShebani, Department of Civil Engineering, AlFateh University, Tripoli, Libya
S.N. Sinha, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016, India

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