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CONTENTS
Volume 15, Number 4, April 2003
 

Abstract
While constructing multistorey buildings with reinforced concrete framed structures it is a common practice to provide parking space for vehicles at the ground floor level. This floor will generally consist of open frames without any infilled walls and is called an open-storey. From a post disaster damage survey carried out, it was noticed that during the January 26, 2001 Bhuj (Gujarat, India) earthquake, a large number of reinforced concrete framed buildings with open-storey at ground floor level, suffered extensive damage and in some cases catastrophic collapse. This has brought into sharp focus the need to carry out systematic studies on the seismic vulnerability of such buildings. Determination of vulnerability requires realistic structural response estimations taking into account the stochasticity in the loading and the system parameters. The stochastic finite element method can be effectively used to model the random fields while carrying out such studies. This paper presents the details of stochastic finite element analysis of a five-storey three-bay reinforced concrete framed structure with open-storey subjected to standard seismic excitation. In the present study, only the stochasticity in the system parameters is considered. The stochastic finite element method used for carrying out the analysis is based on perturbation technique. Each random field representing the stochastic geometry/material property is discretised into correlated random variables using spatial averaging technique. The uncertainties in geometry and material properties are modelled using the first two moments of the corresponding parameters. In evaluating the stochastic response, the cross-sectional area and Young\' modulus are considered as independent random fields. To study the influence of correlation length of random fields, different correlation lengths are considered for random field discretisation. The spatial expectations and covariances for displacement response at any time instant are obtained as the output. The effect of open-storey is modelled by suitably considering the stiffness of infilled walls in the upper storey using cross bracing. In order to account for changes in soil conditions during strong motion earthquakes, both fixed and hinged supports are considered. The results of the stochastic finite element based seismic analysis of reinforced concrete framed structures reported in this paper demonstrate the importance of considering the effect of open-storey with appropriate support conditions to estimate the realistic response of buildings subjected to earthquakes.

Key Words
stochastic finite element method; seismic analysis; framed structure.

Address
Structural Engineering Research Centre, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai - 600 113, India

Abstract
In this paper we recall briefly the constitutive equations for solids subjected to thermal strain taking in account the bounded tensile stress of the material. In view to solve the equilibrium problem via the finite element method using the Newton Raphson procedure, we show that the tangent elasticity tensor is semi-definite positive. Therefore, in order to obtain a convergent numerical method, the constitutive equation needs to be modified. Specifically, the dependency of the stress by the anelastic deformation is made explicit by means of a parameter d , varying from 0 to 1, that factorizes the elastic tensor. This parameterization, for d near to 0, assures the positiveness of the tangent elasticity tensor and enforces the convergence of the numerical method. Some numerical examples are illustrated.

Key Words
masonry; thermal strain; bounded tensile strength; finite element.

Address
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

Abstract
The combination of spatial latticed structures (hereafter SLS) and flexible cables, the cable-stayed spatial latticed structures (hereafter CSLS) can cross longer span. According to variation principle, a novel geometric nonlinear formulation for 3-D bar elements considering large displacement and infinitesimal rotation increments with second-order precision is developed. The cable nonlinearity is investigated and it is taken that the secant modulus method can be considered as an exact method for a cable member. The tower column with which the cables link is regarded as a special kind of beam element, and, a new simplified stiffness formulation is presented. The computational strategies for the nonlinear dynamic response of structures are given, and the ultimate load carrying capacities and seismic responses are analyzed numerically. It is noted that, compared with corresponding spatial latticed shells, the cable-stayed spatial latticed shells have more strength and more stiffness, and that the verical seismic responses of both CSLS and CLS are remarkably greater than the horizontal ones. In addition, the computation shows that the stiffness of tower column influences the performance of CSLS to a certain extent and the improvement of structural strength and stiffness of CSLS is relevant not only to cables but also to tower columns.

Key Words
spatial latticed structures; cable; tower column; non-linearity; ultimate load carrying capacity; seismic response.

Address
Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, P.R. China
epartment of Engineering Mechanics and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P.R. China

Abstract
The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model of a beam with open cracks and external strengthening which is able to predict its modal scheme components (natural frequencies and mode shapes). The model is valid as far as the excitation level is low enough not to activate non linear effects. The application field of the model are either the prediction of the efficiency of the reinforcement or the non destructive assessment of the structural properties. The degrees of freedom associated to the fault lips must be taken into account in order to introduce the effect of the external strengthening. In a first step, an analytical formulation of a beam with thin notches is proposed according to the references. The model is then extended to incorporate the strengthening consisting in a longitudinal stiffness applied in the vicinity of the cracks. In a second step, the analytical results are compared with these obtained from a finite element simulation.

Key Words
eigen modes; beam; open crack; external strengthening.

Address
Laboratoire Mecanique Materiaux et Structures, Universite Claude Bernard, 82 boulevard Niels Bohr, Domaine scientifique de la Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne, France

Abstract
In this paper, a new block iterative algorithm is presented by using the special feature of the continuous Riccati equation in the optimal shape control. Because the real-time control require that the CPU time should be as short as possible, an appropriate modal control algorithm is sought. The computing cost is less than the one of the all state feedback control. A numerical example is given to illustrate the algorithm.

Key Words
intelligent structure; optimal shape control; block iterative algorithm; modal control.

Address
Department of Mechanics, Nailing Campus, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025, P.R. China

Abstract
This paper deals with nonlinear asymmetric dynamic buckling of clamped laminated angle-ply composite spherical shells under suddenly applied pressure loads. The formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory and Lagrange

Key Words
dynamic buckling; asymmetric; angle-ply; spherical caps; nonlinear response.

Address
Institute of Armament Technology, Girinagar, Pune - 411 025, India

Abstract
Masonry is not a simple material, the influence of mortar joints as a plane of weakness is a significant feature and this makes the numerical modelling of masonry very difficult especially when dynamic (seismic) analysis is involved. In order to develop a simple numerical model for masonry under earthquake load, an analytical model based on Distinct Element Method (DEM) is being developed. At the first stage, the model is applied to simulate the in-plane shear behaviour of an unreinforced masonry wall with and without opening where the testing results are available for comparison. In DEM, a solid is represented as an assembly of discrete blocks. Joints are modelled as interface between distinct bodies. It is a dynamic process and specially designed to model the behaviour of discontinuities. The numerical solutions obtained from the distinct element analysis are validated by comparing the results with those obtained from existing experiments and finite element modelling.

Key Words
distinct element method; unreinforced masonry; shear wall; failure; numerical modelling.

Address
School of Geosciences, Minerals and Civil Engineering, University of South Australia, SA 5095, Australia
School of Petroleum Engineering and Management, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia


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