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CONTENTS
Volume 16, Number 1, July 2003
 

Abstract
This paper proposes a new method for the preliminary design of cable-stayed bridges that belong to the radial system subjected to static loads (self weight, traffic loads, concentrated loads, etc). The method is based on the determination of the each time existing relation between the tension forces of the cables and the corresponding bridge-deck deformations, and can be extended on any type of cable layout (fan, parallel, or mixed system). Galerkin

Key Words
cable-stayed bridges; design of bridges; preliminary analysis.

Address
National Technical University of Athens, 42, Patission Str. 10682, Athens, Greece

Abstract
This paper presents a damage assessment procedure applied to periodic spring mass systems using an eigenvalue sensitivity-based method. The damage is directly related to the stiffness reduction of the damage element. The natural frequencies of periodic structures with one single disorder are found by adopting the transfer matrix approach, consequently, the first order approximation of the natural frequencies with respect to the disordered stiffness in different elements is used to form the sensitivity matrix. The analysis shows that the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage in different locations depends only on the mode number and the location of damage. The stiffness changes due to damage can be identified by solving a set of underdetermined equations based on the sensitivity matrix. The issues associated with many possible damage locations in large structural systems are addressed, and a means of improving the computational efficiency of damage detection while maintaining the accuracy for large periodic structures with limited available measured natural frequencies, is also introduced in this paper. The incomplete measurements and the effect of random error in terms of measurement noise in the natural frequencies are considered. Numerical results of a periodic spring-mass system of 20 degrees of freedom illustrate that the proposed method is simple and robust in locating single or multiple damages in a large periodic structure with a high computational efficiency.

Key Words
damage assessment; periodic system; measured natural frequency; sensitivity analysis; transfer matrix.

Address
School of Civil Engineering & Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 430074, Wuhan, P. R. China

Abstract
The histories and distributions of dynamic stresses in an orthotropic hollow cylinder under sinusoidal impact load are obtained by making use of eigenfunction expansion method in this paper. Dynamic equations for axially symmetric orthotropic problem are founded and results are carried out for a practical example in which an orthotropic hollow cylinder is in initially at rest and subjected to a dynamic interior pressure p (t) = -s0(sinat + 1). The features of the solution appear the propagation of the cylindrical waves. The other hand, a dynamic finite element solution for the same problem is also got by making use of structural software (ABAQUS) program. Comparing theoretical solution with finite element solution, it can be found that two kinds of results obtained by two different solving methods are suitably approached. Thus, it is further concluded that the method and computing process of the theoretical solution are effective and accurate.

Key Words
orthotropic hollow cylinder; impact load; theoretical solution; finite element solution.

Address
Department of Engineering Mechanics, The School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, P.R. China

Abstract
The nonlinear dependence aspect of various conical tool indentation parameters leading to an optimum tool semi angle value for easiest perforation is plotted and discussed explicitly in this work with the conclusion that tool angle has an optimum response towards most of the indentation parameters. Around this optimum angle, the aluminium sheets showed minimum fracture toughness as well as minimum work input to overcome the offered resistance. At the end, the mechanism leading to this phenomenon is presented with the conclusion that plastic flow dominates as the dimple semi cone angle reaches 35 and both pre and post plastic flow perforations lead the tool semi cone angle value towards this dimple cone semi angle of plastic flow initiation for its optimum performance. It is also concluded that specimen material failure is solely under tensile hoop stress and hence results into radial cracks initiation and propagation.

Key Words
hoop stress; pre & post plastic flow juncture; perforations; crack propagation; perforation mechanics; premature death of cracks.

Address
Dr. A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 502, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
This paper describes experimental and theoretical investigations on the behaviour of thin walled composite (TWC) filled columns under eccentric loading conditions. Details of the experimental investigation including description of the test columns, testing arrangements, failure modes, strain characteristics, load-deformation responses and effects of various geometric and material parameters are presented. The current paper also introduces the use and effect of lightweight Volcanic Pumice Concrete (VPC) in TWC columns. Analytical models for the design of columns under eccentric loading conditions have been developed taking into consideration the effect of confined concrete. The performance of design equations is validated through experimental results. The proposed design models are found to produce better results compared with available design procedures and Code based formulations. A computer program is developed to generate the interaction diagrams based on the proposed design equations that can be used for design purposes.

Key Words
volcanic pumice; eccentric loading; confined concrete; composite columns; buckling; strength-interaction; design equation.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3, Canada

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to develop the ISCOSTFUN (Intelligent System for Prediction of Concrete Strength by Functional Networks) in order to provide in-place strength information of the concrete to facilitate concrete from removal and scheduling for construction. For this purpose, the system is developed using Functional Network (FN) by learning functions instead of weights as in Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In serial functional network, the functions are trained from enough input-output data and the input for one functional network is the output of the other functional network. Using ISCOSTFUN it is possible to predict early strength as well as 7-day and 28-day strength of concrete. Altogether seven functional networks are used for prediction of strength development. This study shows that ISCOSTFUN using functional network is very efficient for predicting the compressive strength development of concrete and it takes less computer time as compared to well known Back Propagation Neural Network(BPN).

Key Words
functional network; prediction; concrete strength; error function - minimization - Lagrangian.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, Tamil Nadu, India
Research and Development Center, Hyundai Development Company, Seoul 135-894, Korea

Abstract
A base isolation system is proposed for earthquake protection of structures. The system incorporates spherical supports for the base, a specially designed spring-cam system to keep the base rigidly supported under normal condition and to allow it to move for the duration of the earthquake under the constraint of a spring with optimized non-linear characteristics. A single-story model is constructed to investigate the feasibility of the concept. Numerical simulations of the system as well as experimental results show that 95% reduction of the transmitted force to the structure can be achieved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this isolation mechanism, the maximum dynamic bending stress developed at pre-determined critical points within the frame of the structure is measured. Significant reduction of the dynamic stresses is obtained.

Key Words
earthquake protection; active isolation; transmitted force; dynamic stresses; spherical support.

Address
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706, USA


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