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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 3, February20 2005
 

Abstract
This paper presents an experimental as well as a numerical analysis of the in-plane shear behaviour of hollow, 870 ?840 ?100 mm masonry walls, externally strengthened with FRP composites. The experimental approach is devoted to the evaluation of the effectiveness of different composite strengthening configurations and the methodology consists in the diagonal compression of masonry walls. The numerical study assesses the stress and strain state distribution in the unreinforced and strengthened panels using a commercial finite element code. The effect of FRP reinforcement on the masonry behaviour and the capability of modelling to forecast a representative failure mode of the unreinforced and reinforced masonry walls is investigated.

Key Words
hollow brick masonry; FRP reinforcement; diagonal compression test; finite element modeling.

Address
A. Gabor, E. Ferrier, E. Jacquelin and P. Hamelin
Laboratoire M?anique Mat?iaux Structures (L2MS), 82 boulevard Niels Bohr, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France

Abstract
The hot spot stress approach is usually adopted in the fatigue design and analysis of tubular welded joints. To apply the hot spot stress approach for fatigue evaluation of long span suspension bridges, the FEM is used to determine the hot spot stress of critical fatigue location. Using the local finite element models of the Tsing Ma Bridge, typical joints are developed and the stress concentration factors are determined. As a case for study, the calculated stress concentration factor is combined with the nominal representative stress block cycle to obtain the representative hot spot stress range cycle block under traffic loading from online health monitoring system. A comparison is made between the nominal stress approach and the hot spot stress approach for fatigue life evaluation of the Tsing Ma Bridge. The comparison result shows that the nominal stress approach cannot consider the most critical stress of the fatigue damage location and the hot spot stress approach is more appropriate for fatigue evaluation.

Key Words
long suspension bridge; fatigue life evaluation; hot spot stress; finite element method; traffic loading.

Address
T. H. T. Chan
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

T. Q. Zhou, Z. X. Li and L. Guo
College of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Sipailou 2#, P. R. China

Abstract
An analytical method is presented to solve the elastodynamic problem of finitely long hollow cylinder subjected to torsional impact often occurs in engineering mechanics. The analytical solution is composed of a solution of quasi-static equation satisfied with the non-homogeneous boundary condition and a solution of dynamic equation satisfied with homogeneous boundary condition. The quasi-static solution is obtained directly by solving the quasi-static equation satisfied with the non-homogeneous boundary condition. The solution of the non-homogeneous dynamic equation is obtained by means of finite Hankel transform on the radial variable, r, Laplace transform on time variable, t, and finite Fourier transform on axial variable, z. Thus, the solution for finitely long, hollow cylinder subjected to torsion impact is obtained. In the calculating examples, the response histories and distributions of shear stress in the finitely long hollow cylinder subjected to an exponential decay torsion load are obtained, and the results have been analyzed and discussed. Finally, a dynamic finite element for the same problem is carried out by using ABAQUS finite element analysis. Comparing the analytical solution with the finite element solution, it can be found that two kinds of results obtained by means of two different methods agree well. Therefore, it is further concluded that the analytical method and computing process presented in the paper are effective and accurate.

Key Words
torsional impact; finitely long hollow cylinder; elastodynamic; integral transform.

Address
Department of Engineering Mechanics, The School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China

Abstract
In recent years the pure displacement formulation for plate elements has not been as popular as other formulations. We revisit the pure displacement formulation for shear-deformable plate elements and propose a family of N-node, displacement-compatible, fully-integrated, pure-displacement, triangular, Mindlin plate elements, MIN-N. The development has been motivated by the relative simplicity of the pure displacement formulation and by the success of the existing 3-node plate element, MIN3. The formulation of MIN3 is generalized to obtain the MIN-N family, which possesses complete, fully compatible kinematic fields, in which the interpolation functions for transverse displacement are one degree higher than those for rotations. General element-level formulas for the thin-limit Kirchhoff constraints are developed. The 6-node, 18 degree-of-freedom element MIN6, with cubic displacement and quadratic rotations, is implemented and tested extensively. Numerical results show that MIN6 exhibits good performance for both static and dynamic analyses in the linear, elastic regime. The results illustrate that the fully-integrated MIN6 element has excellent performance in the thin limit, even for coarse meshes, and that it does not require shear relaxation.

Key Words
Mindlin plate elements; displacement formulation; triangular plate elements; higher-order plate elements.

Address
Y. Jane Liu
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505-0001, USA

H. R. Riggs
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2540 Dole St. Holmes Hall 383, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA

Abstract
The structural feasibility of a variety of non-conventional sludge digesters, in the form of thin shells of revolution constructed in concrete, has formed the subject of investigation of a recent programme of research at the University of Cape Town. Such forms are usually known in the literature as

Key Words
shell structures; containment shells; concrete digesters; shells of revolution; non-conventional sludge digesters; shell analysis; shell design.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa

Abstract
The paper reports on a study of bond strength between reduced-water-content concrete and tensile reinforcement in spliced mode. Three different diameters (12, 16 and 22 mm) of tensile steel were spliced in the constant moment zone, where there were two bars of same size in tension. For each diameter of reinforcement, a total of nine beams (1900 ?270 ?180 mm) were tested, of which three beams were with no axial force (positive bending) and the other six beams were with axial force (combined bending). The splice length was selected so that bars would fail in bond, splitting the concrete cover in the splice region, before reaching the yield point. It was found that there was a considerable size effect in the experimental results, i.e., as the diameter of the reinforcement reduced the bond strength and the deflection recorded at the midspan increased significantly, whilst the stiffness of the beams reduced. It was also found for all reinforcement sizes that higher bond strength and stiffness were obtained for beams tested in combined bending than that of the beams tested in positive bending only.

Key Words
bond strength; tensile reinforcement; size effect; lap splice; combined bending; load-deflection stiffness.

Address
Kazim Turk
Department of Civil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey

Sinan Caliskan
Division of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, U.K.

M. Sukru Yildirim
Department of Civil Engineering, Corlu Engineering Faculty, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey

Abstract
This paper attempts to develop the analytical model of estimating the fatigue damage using a linear elastic fracture mechanics method. The stress history on a welding member, when a truck passed over a bridge, was defined as a block loading and the crack closure theory was used. These theories explain the influence of a load on a structure. This study undertook an analysis of the stress range frequency considering both dead load stress and crack opening stress. A probability method applied to stress range frequency distribution and the probability distribution parameters of it was obtained by Maximum likelihood Method and Determinant. Monte Carlo Simulation which generates a probability variants (stress range) output failure block loadings. The probability distribution of failure block loadings was acquired by Maximum likelihood Method and Determinant. This can calculate the fatigue reliability preventing the fatigue failure of a welding member. The failure block loading divided by the average daily truck traffic is a predictive remaining life by a day. Fatigue reliability analysis was carried out for the welding member of the bottom flange of a cross beam and the vertical stiffener of a steel box bridge by the proposed model. Results showed that the primary factor effecting failure time was crack opening stress. It was important to decide the crack opening stress for using the proposed model. Also according to the 50% reliability and 90%, 99.9% failure times were indicated.

Key Words
fracture mechanics method; fatigue; reliability; stress range frequency

Address
Yeon-Soo Park, Suk-Yeol Han and Byoung-Chul Suh
Department of Civil Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwang-ju, Korea


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