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CONTENTS
Volume 20, Number 5, July30 2005
 

Abstract
This article explores a constitutive equation that is able to correlate stress, strain and strain rate. In order to show the advantages of the constitutive equation here proposed and how its material parameters are obtained, data extracted from the literature, for materials as different as polymers and metallic alloys, are used. Finite element simulation of the impact behaviour of a beam is presented to highlight the care one needs to exercise when using the more traditional Cowper-Symonds equation. The present constitutive equation has shown to be accurate for a wide range of strains, stresses and strain rates.

Key Words
dynamic tensile test; constitutive equation; Cowper-Symonds equation.

Address
Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

Abstract
The influence of the inter-story structural pounding on the seismic behaviour of adjacent multistory reinforced concrete structures with unequal total heights and different story heights is investigated. Although inter-story pounding is a common case in practice, it has not been studied before in the literature as far as the authors are aware. Fifty two pounding cases, each one for two different seismic excitations, are examined. From the results it can be deduced that: (i) The most important issue in the inter-story pounding is the local effect on the external column of the tall building that suffers the impact from the upper floor slab of the adjacent shorter structure. (ii) The ductility demands for this column are increased comparing with the ones without the pounding effect. In the cases that the two buildings are in contact these demands appear to be critical since they are higher than the available ductility values. In the cases that there is a small distance between the interacting buildings the ductility demands of this column are also higher than the ones of the same column without the pounding effect but they appear to be lower than the available ductility values. (iii) It has to be stressed that in all the examined cases the developed shear forces of this column exceeded the shear strength. Thus, it can be concluded that in inter-story pounding cases the column that suffers the impact is always in a critical condition due to shear action and, furthermore, in the cases that the two structures are in contact from the beginning this column appears to be critical due to high ductility demands as well. The consequences of the impact can be very severe for the integrity of the column and may be a primary cause for the initiation of the collapse of the structure. This means that special measures have to be taken in the design process first for the critically increased shear demands and secondly for the high ductility demands.

Key Words
structural pounding; inter-story pounding; reinforced concrete structures; ductility requirements; non-linear dynamic analysis.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, 67100, Greece

Abstract
The main objective of this study is to examine the accuracy of the complete quadratic combination (CQC) rule with the modal responses defined by the ordinates of the uniform hazard spectra (UHS) to evaluate the peak responses of the multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems subjected to nonstationary seismic excitations.
For the probabilistic analysis of the peak responses, it is considered that the seismic excitations can be modeled using evolutionary power spectra density functions with uncertain model parameters. More specifically, a seismological model and the Kanai-Tajimi model with the boxcar or the exponential modulating functions were used to define the evolutionary power spectral density functions in this study. A set of UHS was obtained based on the probabilistic analysis of transient responses of single-degree-of-freedom systems subjected to the seismic excitations. The results of probabilistic analysis of the peak responses of MDOF systems were obtained, and compared with the peak responses calculated by using the CQC rule with the modal responses given by the UHS. The comparison seemed to indicate that the use of the CQC rule with the commonly employed correlation coefficient and the peak modal responses from the UHS could lead to significant under- or over-estimation when contributions from each of the modes are similarly significant.

Key Words
peak response; probability; nonstationary process; transient response.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, N6A 5B9

Abstract
The natural frequencies of a long span bridge vary during its construction and it is thus difficult to apply traditional tuned liquid column dampers (TLCD) with a fixed configuration to reduce bridge vibration. The restriction of TLCD imposed by frequency tuning requirement also make it difficult to be applied to structure with either very low or high natural frequency. A semi-active tuned liquid column damper (SATLCD), whose natural frequency can be altered by active control of liquid column pressure, is studied in this paper. The principle of SATLCD with adaptive tuning capacity is first introduced. The analytical models are then developed for lateral vibration of a structure with SATLCD and torsional vibration of a structure with SATLCD, respectively, under either harmonic or white noise excitation. The non-linear damping property of SATLCD is linearized by an equivalent linearization technique. Extensive parametric studies are finally carried out in the frequency domain to find the beneficial parameters by which the maximum vibration reduction can be achieved. The key parameters investigated include the distance from the centre line of SATLCD to the rotational axis of a structure, the ratio of horizontal length to the total length of liquid column, head loss coefficient, and frequency offset ratio. The investigations demonstrate that SATLCD can provide a greater flexibility for its application in practice and achieve a high degree of vibration reduction. The sensitivity of SATLCD to the frequency offset between the damper and structure can be improved by adapting its frequency precisely to the measured structural frequency.

Key Words
semi-active tuned liquid column damper; adaptive tuning; lateral vibration; torsional vibration; harmonic excitation; white noise excitation; liquid column pressure; parametric study.

Address
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China

Abstract
This paper is concerned with the theoretical treatment of transient thermal stresses involving an orthotropic functionally graded thick strip due to nonuniform heat supply in the width direction. The thermal and thermoelastic constants of the strip are assumed to possess orthotropy and vary exponentially in the thickness direction. The transient two-dimensional temperature is analyzed by the methods of Laplace and finite sine transformations. We obtain the exact solution for the simply supported strip under the state of plane strain. Some numerical results for the temperature change, the displacement and the stress distributions are shown in figures. Furthermore, the influence of the orthotropy and nonhomogeneity of the material is investigated.

Key Words
thermoelasticity; functionally graded material; material orthotropy; strip; transient state; exact solution

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, 599-8531, Japan

Abstract
Using the nonlinear load transfer function for pile side soil and the linear load transfer function for pile end soil, a combined approach of the incremental load transfer matrix method and the approximate differential equation solution method is presented for the nonlinear analysis of interaction between flexible pile group and soil. The proposed method provides an effective approach for the solution of the nonlinear interaction between flexible pile group under rigid platform and surrounding soil. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, a static load test for a nine–pile group under a rigid platform is carried out. The finite element analysis is also conducted for comparison purposes. It is found that the results from the proposed method match very well with those from the experimental test and are better in comparison with the finite element method.

Key Words
pile-soil interaction; settlement; load transfer; composite ground.

Address
Jie Liu; College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China
Department of Civil Engineering, Zhuzhou Institute of Technology, Zhuzhou, Hunan 412008, China
Q. S. Li; Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Zhe Wu; Department of Flight Vehicle Design and Applied Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China

Abstract
There is a growing need for the development and implementation of new methods for the rapid and cost-effective rehabilitation of deteriorating steel structural components to offset the drawbacks related to welding and/or bolting in the field. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites provide a potential alternative as externally bonded patches for strengthening and repair of metallic structural members for building and bridge systems. This paper describes results of an investigation of tensile and fatigue response of steel/CFRP joints simulating scenarios of strengthening and crack-patching. It is shown that appropriately designed schemes, even when fabricated with levels of inaccuracy as could be expected in the field, can provide significant strain relief and load transfer capability. A simplified elasto-plastic closed form solution for stress analysis is presented, and validated experimentally. It is shown that the bond development length remains constant in the linear range, whereas it increases as the adhesive is deformed plastically. Fatigue resistance is shown to be at least comparable with the requirements for welded cover plates without attendant decreases in stiffness and strength.

Key Words
steel; carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite; rehabilitation; bond; tensile strength; fatigue.

Address
F. Matta; Department of Structural & Transportation Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo, 9, 35131, Padua, Italy
Vistasp M. Karbhari; Department of Structural
Engineering, MC-0085, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0085, USA
Renato Vitaliania; Department of Structural & Transportation Engineering, University of Padua,
Via Marzolo, 9, 35131, Padua, Italy


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