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CONTENTS
Volume 22, Number 3, February20 2006
 

Abstract
Starting with the geometrically non-linear formulation and the subsequent linearization, this paper presents a consistent formulation of the exact mechanical analysis of geometrically and materially linear three-layer continuous planar beams. Each layer of the beam is described by the geometrically linear beam theory. Constitutive laws of layer materials and relationships between interlayer slips and shear stresses at the interface are assumed to be linear elastic. The formulation is first applied in the analysis of a three-layer simply supported beam. The results are compared to those of Goodman and Popov (1968) and to those obtained from the formulation of the European code for timber structures, Eurocode 5 (1993). Comparisons show that the present and the Goodman and Popov (1968) results agree completely, while the Eurocode 5 (1993) results differ to a certain degree. Next, the analytical solution is used in formulating a general procedure for the analysis of layered continuous beams. The applications show the qualitative and quantitative effects of the layer and the interlayer slip stiffnesses on internal forces, stresses and deflections of composite continuous beams.

Key Words
composite; layered beam; interlayer slip; mathematical model; analytical solution; elasticity.

Address
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Jamova 2, SI-1115 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract
A new approach using the differential quadrature method (DQM) is derived for analysis of non-uniform beams resting on nonlinear media in this study. The influence of velocity dependent viscous damping and strain rate dependent viscous damping is investigated. The results solved using the DQM have excellent agreement with the results solved using the FEM. Numerical results indicated that the DQM is valid and efficient for non-uniform beams resting on non-linear media.

Key Words
DQM; non-uniform beam; nonlinear media; mechanical behavior.

Address
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Penghu University, Penghu, Taiwan

Abstract
In seismic prone areas it is possible to meet very different objects (equipment components, on shelf artefacts, simple architectural elements) that can be modelled as a rigid body rocking on a rigid foundation. The interest in their behaviour can have different reasons: seismological, in order to estimate the ground motion intensity, or more strictly mechanical, in order to limit the response severity and to avoid overturning. The behaviour of many rigid bodies subjected to twenty wide ranging acceleration recordings is studied here. The response of the blocks is described using kinematic and energy parameters. A condition under which a so called scale effect is tangible is highlighted. The capacity of the signals to produce overturning is compared to different ground motion parameters, and a good correlation with the Peak Ground Velocity is unveiled.

Key Words
rocking rigid body; natural accelerograms; ground motion parameters; response measure; scale effect; structural dynamics.

Address
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita ?a Sapienza? Roma, Italy

Abstract
Standard compression tests of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) cylinders are conducted to formulate compressive stress versus compressive strain relationship of SFRC. Axial pullout tests of SFRC specimens are also conducted to explore its tensile stress strain relationship. Cover concrete spalling and reinforcement buckling models developed originally for normal reinforced concrete are modified to extend their application to SFRC. Thus obtained monotonic material models of concrete and reinforcing bars in SFRC members are combined with unloading/reloading loops used in the cyclic models of concrete and reinforcing bars in normal reinforced concrete. The resulting path-dependent cyclic material models are then incorporated in a finite-element based fiber analysis program. The applicability of these models at member level is verified by simulating cyclic lateral loading tests of SFRC columns under constant axial compression. The analysis using the proposed SFRC models yield results that are much closer to the experimental results than the analytical results obtained using the normal reinforced concrete models are.

Key Words
steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC); elasto-plastic and fracture (EPF) model; tension softening/stiffening model; cover spalling, reinforcement buckling; fiber analysis.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020, New Zealand

Abstract
The stresses and deflections in a laminated rectangular plate under thermal vibration are determined by using the moving least squares differential quadrature (MLSDQ) method based on the first order shear deformation theory. The weighting coefficients used in MLSDQ approximation are obtained through a fast computation of the MLS shape functions and their partial derivatives. By using this method, the governing differential equations are transformed into sets of linear homogeneous algebraic equations in terms of the displacement components at each discrete point. Boundary conditions are implemented through discrete grid points by constraining displacements, bending moments and rotations of the plate. Solving this set of algebraic equations yields the displacement components. Then substituting these displacements into the constitutive equation, we obtain the stresses. The approximate solutions for stress and deflection of laminated plate with cross layer under thermal load are obtained. Numerical results show that the MLSDQ method provides rapidly convergent and accurate solutions for calculating the stresses and deflections in a multi-layered plate of cross ply laminate subjected to thermal vibration of sinusoidal temperature including shear deformation with a few grid points.

Key Words
differential quadrature method; moving least-squares method; thermal vibration; laminated plate; shear deformation.

Address
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, Shijiazhuang 050043, P. R. China

Abstract
In this study, the earthquake damage response of the concrete arch dams was investigated including dam-reservoir interaction. A continuum damage model which is a second-order tensor and includes the strain softening behavior was selected for the concrete material. Fluid-structure interaction problem was modeled by Lagrangian approach. Sommerfeld radiation condition was applied to the truncated boundary of reservoir. The improved form of the HHT- time integration algorithm was used in the solution of the equations of motion. The arch dam Type 5 was selected for numerical application. For the dynamic input, acceleration records of the 10 December 1967 Koyna earthquake were chosen. These records were scaled with earthquake acceleration scale factor (EASF) and then used in the analyses. Solutions were obtained for empty and full reservoir cases. The effects of EASF and damping ratio on the response of the dam were studied.

Key Words
damage model; dam-reservoir interaction; seismic response; arch dam.

Address
M. Karaton and Y. Calayir; Firat University, Department of Civil Engineering, Elazig, Turkey
A. Bayraktar; Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
The theoretical background and capabilities of the developed program, SAR-CWF, for stochastic analysis of 3D reinforced-concrete shear wall-frame structures subject to seismic excitations is presented. Incremental stiffness and strength properties of system members are modeled by extended Roufaiel-Meyer hysteretic relation for bending while shear deformations for walls by Origin-Oriented hysteretic model. For the critical height of shear-walls, division to sub-elements is performed. Different yield capacities with respect to positive and negative bending, finite extensions of plastic hinges and P- effects are considered while strength deterioration is controlled by accumulated hysteretic energy. Simulated strong motions are obtained from a Gaussian white-noise filtered through Kanai-Tajimi filter. Dynamic equations of motion for the system are formed according to constitutive and compatibility relations and then inserted into equivalent Ito-Stratonovich stochastic differential equations. A system reduction scheme based on the series expansion of eigen-modes of the undamaged structure is implemented. Time histories of seismic response statistics are obtained by utilizing the computer programs developed for different types of structures.

Key Words
non-linear analysis; stochastic; white-noise, shear wall-frame systems; reinforced concrete; Monte-Carlo simulation.

Address
Istanbul Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey


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