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CONTENTS
Volume 22, Number 5, March30 2006
 

Abstract
Friction problems involving rubber components are frequently encountered in industrial applications. Their treatment within the framework of numerical simulations by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM) is the main issue of this paper. Special emphasis is placed on the choice of a suitable material model and the formulation of a contact model specially designed for the particular characteristics of rubber friction. A coupled thermomechanical approach allows for consideration of the influence of temperature on the frictional behavior. The developed tools are implemented in the commercial FE code ABAQUS. They are validated taking the sliding motion of a rubber tread block as example. Such simulations are frequently encountered in tire design and development. The simulations are carried out with different formulations for the material and the frictional behavior. Comparison of the obtained results with experimental observations enables to judge the suitability of the applied formulations on a structural scale.

Key Words
friction; rubber; thermo-mechanical coupling; finite elements; tires.

Address
Institute for Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

Abstract
This paper compares the performance of axially loaded concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns cast using a conventionally vibrated normal concrete (NC) and a novel self-consolidating concrete (SCC) made with a new viscosity modifying admixture (VMA). A total of sixteen columns with a standard compressive strength of about 50 MPa for both SCC and NC were tested by applying concentric axial load through the concrete core. Columns were fabricated without and with longitudinal and hoop reinforcement (Series I and Series II, respectively) in addition to the tube confinement. The slenderness of the columns expressed as height to diameter ratio (H/D) ranged between 4.8 and 9.5 for Series CI and between 3.1 and 6.5 for Series CII. The strength and ductility of SCC columns were found comparable to those of their NC counterparts as the maximum strength enhancement in NC columns ranged between 1.1% and 7.5% only. No significant difference in strain development was found due to the presence of SCC or NC or due to the presence of longitudinal and hoop reinforcement. Biaxial stress development in the steel tube as per von Mises yield criterion showed similar characteristics for both SCC and NC columns. The confined strength (f\'cc) of SCC was found to be lower than that of NC and f\'cc also decreased with the increase of slenderness of the columns. Analytical models for the prediction of confined concrete strength and axial strength of CFST columns were developed and their performance was validated through test results. The proposed models were found to predict the axial strength of CFST columns better than existing models and Code based design procedures.

Key Words
self-consolidating concrete; concrete filled tube column; biaxial stress; confinement; axial strength; design equations.

Address
M. Lachemi and K. M. A. Hossain ; Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5B 2K3
V. B. Lambros; Lafarge Materials & Construction Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada

Abstract
This paper studies mechanical behavior of the superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) rods in terms of local deformations and time via tensile loading-unloading cycles for both ends fixed end constraints. Besides the unique stress induced martensitic transformation (SIMT), SMA? time dependent behavior when it is in mixed-phase condition upon loading and unloading, also need careful attention with a view of investigating the local deformation of the structural elements made of the same material. With this perspective, the so-called stress-relaxation tests have been performed to demonstrate and investigate the local strains-total strains relationships with time, particularly, during the forward SIMT. Some remarkable phenomena have been observed pertaining to SIMT, which are absent in traditional materials and those unique phenomena have been explained qualitatively. For example, at the stopped loading conditions the two ends (fixed end and moving end of the tensile testing machine) were in fixed positions. So that there was no axial overall deformation of the specimen but some notable increase in the axial local deformation was shown by the extensometer placed at the middle of the SMA specimen. It should be noted that this peculiar behavior termed as ?nertia driven SIMT?occurs only when the loading was stopped at mixed phase condition. Besides this relaxation test for the SMA specimens, the same is performed for the mild steel (MS) specimens under similar test conditions. The MS specimens, however, show no unusual increase of local strains during the stress relaxation tests.

Key Words
SMA (Shape Memory Alloy); SIMT (Stress Induced
Martensitic Transformation); stress relaxation
; local strain; overall strain; inertia driven SIMT

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

Abstract
Enhanced three-dimensional finite elements for geometrically nonlinear analysis of cable-supported structures are presented. The cable element, derived by using the concept of an equivalent modulus of elasticity and assuming the deflection curve of a cable as catenary function, is proposed to model the cables. The stability functions for a frame member are modified to obtain a numerically stable solution. Various numerical examples are solved to illustrate the versatility and efficiency of the proposed finite element model. It is shown that the finite elements proposed in this study can be very useful for geometrically nonlinear analysis as well as free vibration analysis of three-dimensional cable-supported structures.

Key Words
cable-supported structures; geometric nonlinear analysis; free vibration analysis; cable element; frame element; stability function.

Address
Myung-Kwan Song; Department of Specific Structures, Chungsuk Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul 138-802, Korea
Sun-Hoon Kim; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Youngdong University, Chungbuk 370-701, Korea
Chang-Koon Choi; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea

Abstract
laminated beam and had good results. In the present paper, a series of hierarchical warping functions are developed to analyze the cylindrical bending problems of composite lamina. These warping functions which refine through-the-thickness variation of displacements were composed of basic and corrective functions by taking into account of anisotropic, material discontinues, and transverse shear and normal strain. Then the hierarchical finite element method was used to form a numerical algorithm. The distribution of the displacements, in-plane stresses, transverse shear stresses and transverse normal stress for composite laminate were analyzed with the present model. The results show that the present model has precise mechanical response compared with the first deformation transverse theory and the corrective order affects the accuracy of result.

Key Words
composite; laminate; warping function; model; transverse stress.

Address
Zhongmin Deng; School of Space Technology, Beijing University of Aeronautic and Astronautics (BUAA),
Beijing, 100083, China
Chuanyue Huang; Chinese Helicopter Research and Design Institute, Jingdezhen, 333001, China

Abstract
In this paper a recently developed scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is applied to simulate stress concentration for two-dimensional structures. In addition, a simple and independent formulation for evaluating the coefficients, not only of the singular term but also higher order non-singular terms, of the stress fields near crack-tip is presented. The formulation is formed by comparing the displacement along the radial points ahead of the crack-tip with that of standard Williams?eigenfunction solution for the crack-tip. The validity of the formulation is examined by numerical examples with different geometries for a range of crack sizes. The results show good agreement with available solutions in literatures. Based on the results of the study, it is conformed that the proposed numerical method can be applied to simulate stress concentrations in both cracked and uncracked structure components more easily with relatively coarse and simple model than other computational methods.

Key Words
stress concentration; scaled boundary finite element method; stress intensity factor; T-stress; higher order terms.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ehime University, 3, Bunkyo-Cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan

Abstract
Buckling capacity of compression members may change due to inadvertent changes in the member section dimensions or material properties. This may be the result of repair, modification of section properties or degradation of the material properties. In some occasions, enhancement of buckling capacity of compression members may be achieved through splicing of plates or utilization of composite materials. It is very important for a designer to predict the buckling resistance of the compression member and the important parameters that affect its buckling strength once changes in section and/or material properties took place. This paper presents an analytical approach for determining the buckling capacity of a compression member whose geometric and/or material properties has been altered resulting in a multi-step non-uniform section. This analytical solution accommodates the changes and modifications to the material and/or section properties of the compression member due to the factors mentioned. The analytical solution provides adequate information and a methodology that is useful during the design stage as well as the repair stage of compression members. Three case studies are presented to show that the proposed analytical solution is an efficient method for predicting the buckling strength of compression members that their section and/or material properties have been altered due to splicing, coping, notching, ducting and corrosion.

Key Words
buckling analysis; stability; compression member; non-uniform columns.

Address
American University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah, UAE


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