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CONTENTS
Volume 23, Number 3, June20 2006
 

Abstract
A crack model for the fracture in concrete based on meshless method is proposed in this paper. The cracks in concrete are classified into micro-cracks or macro-cracks respectively according to their widths, and different numerical approaches are adopted for them. The micro-cracks are represented with smeared crack approach whilst the macro-cracks are represented with discrete cracks that are made up with additional nodes and boundaries. The widely used meshless method, Element-free Galerkin method, is adopted instead of finite element method to model the concrete, so that the discrete crack approach is easier to be implemented with the convenience of arranging node distribution in the meshless method. Rotating-Crack-Model is proved to be preferred over Fixed-Crack-Model for the smeared cracks of this composite crack model due to its better performance on mesh bias. Numerical examples show that this composite crack model can take advantage of the positive characteristics in the smeared and discrete approaches, and overcome some of their disadvantages.

Key Words
composite crack; meshless; concrete crack; smeared crack; discrete crack.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract
Most codes of practice state that for large in-plane structures it is necessary to account for the spatial variability of earthquake ground motion. There are essentially three effects that contribute for this variation: (i) wave passage effect, due to finite propagation velocity; (ii) incoherence effect, due to differences in superposition of waves; and (iii) the local site amplification due to spatial variation in geological conditions. This paper discusses the procedures to be undertaken in the time domain analysis of a cable-stayed bridge under spatial variability of earthquake ground motion. The artificial synthesis of correlated displacements series that simulate the earthquake load is discussed first. Next, it is described the 3D model of the International Guadiana Bridge used for running tests with seismic analysis. A comparison of the effects produced by seismic waves with different apparent propagation velocities and different geological conditions is undertaken. The results in this study show that the differences between the analysis with and without spatial variability of earthquake ground motion can be important for some displacements and internal forces, especially those influenced by symmetric modes.

Key Words
spatial variability of earthquake ground motion; cable-stayed bridges; baseline correction.

Address
Civil Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Pinhal de Marrocos, Polo II, 3030-290 Coimbra, Portugal

Abstract
In this paper, a simplified mathematical procedure is presented to incorporate nonlinearity in soil material to predict the deceleration time history, penetration depth and other relevant parameters for normal impact of missiles into soil targets. Numerical method is employed for these predictions. The results of the study are compared with experimental observations and predictions available in the literature. A good agreement is found with experimental observations and an improvement is observed with existing predictions. A comparison is also made with linear soil model. Some parametric studies are also carried out to obtain the results of practical interest.

Key Words
missile penetration; projectiles; missiles; soil targets; soil penetration.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, India

Abstract
This work presents a time-truncation scheme, based on the Lagrange interpolation polynomial, for the solution of the two-dimensional scalar wave problem by the time-domain boundary element method. The aim is to reduce the number of stored matrices, due to the convolution integral performed from the initial time to the current time, and to keep a compromise between computational economy and efficiency and the numerical accuracy. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed formulation, three examples are presented and discussed at the end of the article.

Key Words
truncation strategy; boundary element method; scalar wave equation; TD-BEM.

Address
J. A. M. Carrer; Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metodos Numericos em Engenharia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19011, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR, Brasil
W. J. Mansur; Programa de Engenharia Civil,COPPE/UFRJ, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Abstract
Natural hazards, including the wind hazard and others, threaten the integrity of the modern society. A transportation system usually consists of roadways, bridges and related vehicles. Harsh environmental conditions, caused by such as wind, exist in the real world frequently and affect the dynamic performance of the transportation system through their interactions. Long-span bridges are usually the backbones of transportation lines. In windy conditions, the information about the dynamic performance of bridges and vehicles considering full interactions of environmental factors is very essential for people to assess the overall operational conditions and safety risks of the transportation lines. Most of existent approaches target specifically at several isolated tasks considering partial interaction effects. In order to improve the understanding of these related-in-nature problems integrally as well as the consistency of different approaches, a unified approach to integrally predict the dynamic performance of long-span bridges and vehicles under wind is introduced. Such an approach can be used as a general platform to predict the dynamic responses of vehicles and bridges under various situations through adopting both commercial and in-house software. Dynamic interaction effects can be fully considered automatically for each situation. An example of a prototype bridge in US is given for the purpose of demonstration.

Key Words
bridge; vehicle; wind; vibration.

Address
S. R. Chen; Michael Baker Jr. Inc., 2925 Layfair Drive, Jackson, MS 39232, U.S.A.
C. S. Cai; Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, U.S.A.

Abstract
This paper presents a complete and consistent formulation to study the seismic response of a free-standing ship supported by an arrangement of n keel blocks which are all located in a dry dock. It is considered that the foundation of the system is subjected to both horizontal and vertical in plane excitation. The motion of the system is classified in eight different modes which are Rest (relative), Sliding of keel blocks, Rocking of keel blocks, Sliding of the ship, Sliding of both keel blocks and the ship, Sliding and rocking of keel blocks, Rocking of keel blocks with sliding of the ship, and finally Sliding and rocking of keel blocks accompanied with sliding of the ship. For each mode of motion the governing equations are derived, and transition conditions between different modes are also defined. This formulation is based on a number of fundamental assumptions which are 2D idealization for motion of the system, considering keel blocks as the rigid ones and the ship as a massive rigid block too, allowing the similar motion for all keel blocks, and supposing frictional nature for transmitted forces between contacted parts. Also, the rocking of the ship is not likely to take place, and the complete ship separation from keel blocks or separation of keel blocks from the base is considered as one of the failure mode in the system. The formulation presented in this paper can be used in its entirety or in part, and they are suitable for investigation of generalized response using suitable analytical, or conducting a time-history sensitivity analysis.

Key Words
free-standing ship; keel blocks; coulomb friction; horizontal and vertical base excitation; non-linear dynamic analysis; seismic response.

Address
Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
In this paper, seismic response of a free-standing ship located in a dry dock and supported by an arrangement of n keel blocks due to base excitation is addressed. Formulation of the problem including derivation of governing equations in various modes of motion as well as transition conditions from one mode to another is given in Moghaddasi and Bargi (2006) by same authors. On the base of numerical solution for presented formulation, several numbers of analyses are conducted to study sensitivity of system? responses to some major contributing parameters. These parameters include friction coefficients between contacting surfaces, block dimensions, peak ground acceleration, and the magnitude of vertical ground acceleration. Finally, performance of a system with usual parameters normally encountered in design is investigated.

Key Words
free-standing ship; keel blocks; coulomb friction; seismic response; sensitivity analysis.

Address
Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran, Iran


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