Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


sem
 
CONTENTS
Volume 24, Number 1, September10 2006
 

Abstract
Strengthening of existing old structures has traditionally been accomplished by using conventional materials and techniques, viz., externally bonded steel plates, steel or concrete jackets, etc. Alternatively, fibre reinforced polymer composite (FRPC) products started being used to overcome problems associated with conventional materials in the mid 1950s because of their favourable engineering properties. Effectiveness of FRPC materials has been demonstrated through extensive experimental research throughout the world in the last two decades. However there is a need to use refined analytical tools to simulate response of strengthened system. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a numerical model of strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams with FRPC laminates. Material models for RC beams strengthened with FRPC laminates are described and verified through a nonlinear finite element (FE) commercial code, with the help of available experimental data. Three dimensional (3D) FE analysis has been performed by assuming perfect bonding between concrete and FRPC laminate. A parametric study has also been performed to examine effects of various parameters like fibre type, stirrup? spacing, etc. on the strengthening system. Through numerical simulation, it has been shown that it is possible to predict accurately the flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRPC laminates by selecting an appropriate material constitutive model. Comparisons are made between the available experimental results in literature and FE analysis results obtained by the present investigators using load-deflection and load-strain plots as well as ultimate load of the strengthened beams. Furthermore, evaluation of crack patterns from FE analysis and experimental failure modes are discussed at the end.

Key Words
RC beam; FRPC; FE analysis; strengthening; nonlinear; ultimate load.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400 076, India

Abstract
The evolution process of an initially homogeneous bone structure under axial and transverse loads is investigated in this paper. The external loads include axial and external lateral pressure, electric, magnetic and thermal loads. The theoretical predictions of evolution processes are made based on the adaptive elasticity formulation and coupled thermo-magneto-electro-elastic theory. The adaptive elastic body, which is a model for living bone diaphysis, is assumed to be homogeneous in its anisotropic properties and its density. The principal result of this paper is determination of the evolution process of the initially homogeneous body to a transversely inhomogeneous body under the influence of the inhomogeneous stress state

Key Words
bone remodeling; piezoelectric; piezomagnetic; biomechanics; biomaterials

Address
Chuanyong Qu; Dept. of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China
Qing-Hua Qin; Dept. of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Abstract
This paper deals with the mechanical behaviour of the thin-walled cylindrical air-spring shell (CAS) made of rubber-textile cord composite (RCC) subjected to different types of loading. An orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive model is presented which can be applied to numerical simulation for the response of biological soft tissue and of the nonlinear anisotropic hyperelastic material of the CAS used in vibroisolation of driver? seat. The parameters of strain energy function of the constitutive model are fitted to the experimental results by the nonlinear least squares method. The deformation of the inflated CAS is calculated by solving the system of five first-order ordinary differential equations with the material constitutive law and proper boundary conditions. Nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive equations of orthotropic composite material are incorporated into the finite strain analysis by finite element method (FEM). The results for the deformation analysis of the inflated CAS made of RCC are given. Numerical results of principal stretches and deformed profiles of the inflated CAS obtained by numerical deformation analysis are compared with experimental ones

Key Words
constitutive model; rubber-textile cord composite; air-spring shell.

Address
Department of Material and Structure Mechanics, Hanoi University of Technology, Vietnam

Abstract
Differential transform method (DTM) for free vibration analysis of both ends simply supported beam resting on elastic foundation is suggested. The fourth order partial differential equation for free vibration of the beam resting on elastic foundation subjected to bending moment, shear and axial compressive load is obtained by using Winkler hypothesis and small displacement theory. It is assumed that the material is linear-elastic, and that axial load and modulus of subgrade reaction to be constant. In the analysis, shear and axial load effects are considered. The frequency factors of the beam are calculated by using DTM due to the values of relative stiffness; the results are presented in graphs and tables

Key Words
differential transformation method; partial differential equation; motion equation; free motion; elastic soil

Address
Dokuz EylŸl University, Department of Civil Engineering (Applied Mathematics),
Faculty of Engineering, 35160, Buca-ezmir, Turkey

Abstract
Geometric imperfections have an important influence on the buckling response of structural components. This paper describes an experimental technique for determining imperfections in long (5.7 m) structural members using a series of overlapping measurements. Measurements were performed on 31 austenitic stainless steel sections formed from three different production routes: hot-rolling, cold-rolling and press-braking. Spectral analysis was carried out on the imperfections to obtain information on the periodic nature of the profiles. Two series were used to model the profile firstly the orthogonal cosine and sine functions in a classic Fourier transform and secondly a half sine series. Results were compared to the relevant tolerance standards. Simple predictive tools for both local and global imperfections have been developed to enable representative geometric imperfections to be incorporated into numerical models and design methods.

Key Words
geometric imperfections; stainless steel structures; Fourier series.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK

Abstract
In this paper, post-earthquake capacity evaluation method of reinforced concrete buildings was studied. Substructure pseudo-dynamic test and static loading test of first story column in a four-story R/C building was carried out in order to investigate the validity of the evaluation method proposed in the Damage Assessment Guideline (JBDPA 2001). In pseudo-dynamic test, different levels of damage were induced in the specimens by pre-loading, and input levels of seismic motion, at which the specimens reached to the ultimate stage, were examined. From the experimental result, no significant difference in damage levels such as residual crack width between the specimens under static and pseudo-dynamic loading was found. It is shown that the seismic capacity reduction factors h can provide a reasonable estimation of post-earthquake seismic capacity of R/C buildings suffered earthquakes.

Key Words
post-earthquake capacity; R/C; pseudo-dynamic test; damage levels; seismic capacity reduction factor

Address
ESnS Structure Research Center, Dept. of Architectural Engineeing, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, Korea

Abstract
The present paper proposes a semi-empirical analytical expression that is capable of determining the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams with longitudinal bars, in the presence of reinforcing fibers and transverse stirrups. The expression is based on an evaluation of the strength contribution of beam and arch actions and it makes it possible to take their interaction with the fibers into account. For the strength contribution of stirrups, the effective stress reached at beam failure was considered by introducing an effectiveness function. This function shows the share of beam action strength contribution on the global strength of the beam calculated including the effect of fibers.
The expression is calibrated on the basis of experimental data available in literature referring to fibrous reinforced concrete beams with steel fibers and recently obtained by the authors. It can also include the following variables in the strength previsions: - geometrical ratio of longitudinal bars in tension; - shear span to depth ratio; - strength of materials and fiber characteristics; - size effects. Finally, some of the more recent analytical expressions that are capable of predicting the shear strength of fibrous concrete beams, also in the presence of stirrups, are mentioned and a comparison is made with experimental data and with the results obtained by the authors.

Key Words
shear-moment interaction; concrete; fibers; stirrups; shear strength.

Address
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze – 90128 Palermo, Italy


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com