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CONTENTS
Volume 25, Number 1, January10 2007
 

Abstract
Dynamic behaviors of the contact surface between ball and raceway in a guideway mechanism vary with the applied loads and hence affect the mechanical responses of machine tools. The study aims to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of dynamic behaviors at the rolling contact interface in linear guideway mechanisms. Firstly, analytical method was introduced to understand the contact behaviors based on Hertz contact theory in a point-to-point way. Then, the finite element approach with a three-dimensional surface-to-surface contact model and appropriate contact stiffness was developed to study the dynamic characteristics of such linear guideways. Finally, experiments with modal test were conducted to verify the significance of both the analytical and the numerical results. Results told that the finite element approach may provide significant predictions. The study results also concluded that the current nonlinear models based on Hertz

Key Words
linear guide; Hertz theory; contact stiffness.

Address
Jyh-Cheng Chang and James Shih-Shyn Wu; Institute of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung-Hsin Univeristy, 250, Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung, Taiwan 402, R.O.C.
Jui-Pin Hung; Institute of Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology, National Chin-Yi Institute of Technology ,35, Lane.215, Sec. 1, Chung-Shan Rd., Taiping, 411, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Abstract
In this study a stochastic approach for linear viscous dampers design adopted for seismic protection of buildings is developed. Devices optimal placement into the main structure and their mechanical parameters are attained by means of a reliability-based optimum design criterion, in which an objective function (O.F.) is minimized, subject to a stochastic constraint. The seismic input is modelled by a non stationary modulated Kanai Tajimi filtered stochastic process. Building is represented by means of a plane shear type frame model. The selected criterion for the optimization searches the minimum of the O.F., here assumed to be the cost of the seismic protection, i.e., assumed proportional to the sum of added dampings of each device. The stochastic constraint limits a suitable approximated measure of the structure failure probability, here associated to the maximum interstorey drift crossing over a given threshold limit, related, according with modern Technical Codes, to the required damage control.

Key Words
seismic protection; random vibrations; optimum design; viscous dampers.

Address
Giuseppe Carlo Marano and Francesco Trentadue; Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development, Technical University of Bari, viale del Turismo, 10, 74100 Taranto, Italy-EU
Rita Greco; Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Technical University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 72126 Bari, Italy-EU

Abstract
This paper describes an experimental study on structural health monitoring of a 1:3-scaled one-story concrete frame subjected to seismic damage and retrofit. The structure is tested on a shaking table by exerting successively enhanced earthquake excitations until severe damage, and then retrofitted using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP). The modal properties of the tested structure at trifling, moderate, severe damage and strengthening stages are measured by subjecting it to a small-amplitude white-noise excitation after each earthquake attack. Making use of the measured global modal frequencies and a validated finite element model of the tested structure, a neural network method is developed to quantitatively identify the stiffness reduction due to damage and the stiffness enhancement due to strengthening. The identification results are compared with

Key Words
concrete frame; shaking table test; seismic damage; retrofit; structural stiffness identification; neural network.

Address
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Abstract
In this study, an effective load increment method for multi modal adaptive non-linear static (pushover) analysis (NSA) for building type structures is presented. In the method, lumped plastisicity approach is adopted and geometrical non-linearties (second-order effects) are included. Non-linear yield conditions of column elements and geometrical non-linearity effects between successive plastic sections are linearized. Thus, load increment needed for formation of plastic sections can be determined directly (without applying iteration or step-by-step techniques) by using linearized yield conditions. After formation of each plastic section, the higher mode effects are considered by utilizing the essentials of traditional response spectrum analysis at linearized regions between plastic sections. Changing dynamic properties due to plastification in the system are used on the calculation of modal lateral loads. Thus, the effects of stiffness changes and local mechanism at the system on lateral load distribution are included. By using the proposed method, solution can be obtained effectively for multi-mode whereby the properties change due to plastifications in the system. In the study, a new procedure for determination of modal lateral loads is also proposed. In order to evaluate the proposed method, a 20 story RC frame building is analyzed and compared with Non-linear Dynamic Analysis (NDA) results and FEMA 356 Non-linear Static Analysis (NSA) procedures using fixed loads distributions (first mode, SRSS and uniform distribution) in terms of different parameters. Second-order effects on response quantities and periods are also investigated. When the NDA results are taken as reference, it is seen that proposed method yield generally better results than all FEMA 356 procedures for all investigated response quantities.

Key Words
earthquake response of buildings; load increment method; adaptive non-linear static analysis; second-order effects; RC buildings.

Address
Bal kesir University, Civil Engineering Department, 10145 Bal kesir, Turkey

Abstract
Post-earthquake reconnaissance and experimental research indicate that squat reinforced concrete (RC) columns in existing buildings or bridge piers are vulnerable to non-ductile shear failure. Recently, several experimental studies were conducted to investigate upgrading the shear resistance capacity of such columns in order to modify their failure mode to ductile one. Among these upgrading methods is the use of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) jackets. One of the preferred analytical tools to simulate the response of frame structures to earthquake loading is the lumped plasticity macromodels due to their computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. In these models, the columns

Key Words
ductility; rehabilitation; FRP; reinforced concrete; squat columns; non-ductile; shear; force-displacement.

Address
Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montr?al, Qu?bec, Canada H3G 1M8

Abstract
A new class of finite elements is described for dealing with mesh gradation. The approach employs the moving least square (MLS) scheme to devise a class of elements with an arbitrary number of nodal points on the parental domain. This approach generally leads to elements with rational shape functions, which significantly extends the function space of the conventional finite element method. With a special choice of the nodal points and the base functions, the method results in useful elements with polynomial shape functions for which the C1 continuity breaks down across the boundaries between the subdomains comprising one element. Among those, (4 + n)-noded MLS based finite elements possess the generality to be connected with an arbitrary number of linear elements at a side of a given element. It enables us to connect one finite element with a few finite elements without complex remeshing. The effectiveness of the new elements is demonstrated via appropriate numerical examples.

Key Words
MLS-based finite elements; moving least square approximation; mesh gradation; stress concentration.

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Science Town, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The problem related to the computation of bounds on plastic deformations for structures in plastic shakedown condition (alternating plasticity) is studied. In particular, reference is made to structures discretized by finite elements constituted by elastic perfectly plastic material and subjected to a special combination of fixed and cyclic loads. The load history is known during the steady-state phase, but it is unknown during the previous transient phase; so, as a consequence, it is not possible to know the complete elastic plastic structural response. The interest is therefore focused on the computation of bounds on suitable measures of the plastic strain which characterizes just the first transient phase of the structural response, whatever the real load history is applied. A suitable structural model is introduced, useful to describe the elastic plastic behaviour of the structure in the relevant shakedown conditions. A special bounding theorem based on a perturbation method is proposed and proved. Such theorem allows us to compute bounds on any chosen measure of the relevant plastic deformation occurring at the end of the transient phase for the structure in plastic shakedown; it represents a generalization of analogous bounding theorems related to the elastic shakedown. Some numerical applications devoted to a plane steel structure are effected and discussed.

Key Words
elastic plastic structures; cyclic loads; plastic shakedown; bounds; perturbation methods.

Address
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale & Geotecnica (DISEG), Universit? degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 ? Palermo, Italy

Abstract
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Key Words
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Address
Akdeniz University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, 07200, Topcular, Antalya, Turkey


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