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CONTENTS
Volume 30, Number 6, December20 2008
 

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to develop a rehabilitation technique for heavily earthquake damaged masonry buildings. A full scale one storey masonry building with window and door openings
was manufactured and tested on the shock table by applying increased amplitude free vibration up to the point where heavy earthquake damage was observed. Damaged test building was rehabilitated with vertical and diagonal steel straps and then tested again. The effectiveness of improvements obtained by the rehabilitation technique was investigated. Steel straps improved the lateral strength and stiffness of
masonry walls and limited the lateral displacement of building. Stability of the masonry walls were also improved by the steel straps. Steel straps reduced the natural period of the earthquake damaged masonry
building and prevented the failure of the building at the same amplitude of free vibration.

Key Words
masonry building; earthquake damage; rehabilitation; steel strap.

Address
Sinan Altin: Gazi University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
Fikret Kuran: Dept. of Civil Engineering,The Turkish Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara, Turkey
Ozgur Anil: Gazi University, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
M. Emin Kara: Aksaray University, Department. of Civil Engineering, Aksaray, Turkey

Abstract
The beams components subjected to the loading such as axial, bending and cyclic thermal loads were studied in this research. The used constitutive equations are those of elasto-plasticity coupled to ductile and/or creep damage. The nonlinear kinematic hardening behavior was considered in elastoplasticity modeling. The unified damage law proposed for ductile failure and fatigue by the author of Sermage et al. (2000) and Kachanov?s creep damage model applied to cyclic creep and low cycle fatigue of beams. Based on the results of the analysis, the shakedown limit loads were determined through the calculation of the residual strains developed in the beam analysis. The iterative technique determines the shakedown limit load in an iterative manner by performing a series of full coupled elastic.plastic and continuum damage cyclic loading modeling. The maximum load carrying capacity of the beam can withstand, were determined and imposed on the Bree?s interaction diagram. Comparison between the shakedown diagrams generated by or without creep and/or ductile damage for the loading patterns was presented.

Key Words
Bree?s diagram; ductile damage; creep damage; cyclic loading; nonlinear kinematic hardening.

Address
A. Nayebi: Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract
On marine vessels, delicate instruments such as navigation radars are normally mounted on ship masts. However the vibrations at the top of mast where the radar is mounted often cause serious deterioration in radar-tracking resolution. The most serious problem is caused by the rotational vibrations at the top of mast that may be due to wind loading, inertial loading from ship rolling and base excitations
induced by the running propeller. This paper presents a method of semi-active vibration control using magneto-rheological (MR) dampers to reduce the rotational vibration of the mast. In the study, the
classical optimal control algorithm, the independent modal space control algorithm and the double input-single output fuzzy control algorithm are employed for the vibration control. As the phenomenological
model of an MR damper is highly nonlinear, which is difficult to analyse, a back-propagation neural network is trained to emulate the inverse dynamic characteristics of the MR damper in the analysis. The
trained neural network gives the required voltage for each MR damper based on the displacement, velocity and control force of the MR damper quickly. Numerical simulations show that the proposed control methods can effectively suppress the rotational vibrations at the top of mast.

Key Words
magneto-rheological damper; neural network; semi-active control; ship mast; structural vibration.

Address
Y.S. Cheng: Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, P.R. China
F.T.K. Au: Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P.R. China
J.P. Zhong: Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, P.R. China

Abstract
The effectiveness of wavelet transform in detecting delamination damages in multilayered composite beams and plates is studied here. The damaged composite beams and plates are modeled in finite element software ABAQUS and the first few mode shapes are obtained. The mode shapes of the damaged structures are then wavelet transformed. It is observed that the distribution of wavelet coefficients can identify the damage location of beams and plates by showing higher values of wavelet coefficients at the position of damage. The effectiveness of the method is studied for different boundary conditions, damage location and size for single as well as multiple delaminations in composite beams and plates. It is observed that both discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) can detect the presence and location of the damaged region from the mode shapes of the structures. DWT may be used to approximately evaluate the size of the delamination area, whereas, CWT is efficient to detect smaller delamination areas in composites.

Key Words
Wavelet transform; composite beams and plates; delamination damage.

Address
B.S. Bombale, M.K. Singha and S. Kapuria: Dept. of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India

Abstract
Serviceability and durability of the concrete members can be seriously affected by the corrosion of steel rebar. Carbonation front and or chloride ingress can destroy the passive film on rebar and may set the corrosion (oxidation process). Depending on the level of oxidation (expansive corrosion products/rust) damage to the cover concrete takes place in the form of expansion, cracking and spalling or delamination. This makes the concrete unable to develop forces through bond and also become unprotected against further degradation from corrosion; and thus marks the end of service life for corrosion-affected structures. This paper presents an analytical model that predicts the weight loss of steel rebar and the corresponding time from onset of corrosion for the known corrosion rate and thus can be used for the determination of time to cover cracking in corrosion affected RC member. This model uses fully the thick-walled cylinder approach. The gradual crack propagation in radial directions (from inside)
is considered when the circumferential tensile stresses at the inner surface of intact concrete have reached the tensile strength of concrete. The analysis is done separately with and without considering the stiffness of reinforcing steel and rust combine along with the assumption of zero residual strength of cracked concrete. The model accounts for the time required for corrosion products to fill a porous zone before they start inducing expansive pressure on the concrete surrounding the steel rebar. The capability of the model to produce the experimental trends is demonstrated by comparing the model?s predictions with the results of experimental data published in the literature. The effect of considering the corroded reinforcing steel bar stiffness is demonstrated. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to show the influence
of the various parameters. It has been found that material properties and their inter-relations significantly influence weight loss of rebar. Time to cover cracking from onset of corrosion for the same weight loss is influenced by corrosion rate and state of oxidation of corrosion product formed. Time to cover cracking from onset of corrosion is useful in making certain decisions pertaining to inspection, repair, rehabilitation, replacement and demolition of RC member/structure in corrosive environment.

Key Words
Concrete; Corrosion; Modulus of Elasticity; Expansive; Cracking.

Address
Satish B. Allampallewar: Basic Engineering Department, Maharashtra Academy of Engineering, Alandi, Pune 412105, India
A. Srividya: Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India

Abstract
The failure of reinforced concrete structures in recent earthquakes caused concern about the performance of beam column joints. Confinement of joint is one of the ways to improve the performance of
beam column joints during earthquakes. This paper describes an experimental study of exterior beam-column joints with two non-conventional reinforcement arrangements. One exterior beam-column joint of a six story building in seismic zone III of India was designed for earthquake loading. The transverse reinforcement of the joint assemblages were detailed as per IS 13920:1993 and IS 456:2000 respectively. The proposed nonconventional reinforcement was provided in the form of diagonal reinforcement on the faces of the joint, as a replacement of stirrups in the joint region for joints detailed as per IS 13920 and as additional reinforcement for joints detailed as per IS 456. These newly proposed detailing have the basic advantage of reducing the reinforcement congestion at the joint region. In order to study and compare the performance of joint with different detailing, four types of one-third scale specimens were cast (two numbers in each type). The main objective of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed reinforcement
detailing. All the specimens were tested under reverse cyclic loading, with appropriate axial load. From the test results, it was found that the beam-column joint having confining reinforcement as per IS: 456 with nonconventional detailing performed well. Test results indicate that the non-conventionally detailed specimens, Type 2 and Type 4 have an improvement in average ductility of 16% and 119% than their conventionally detailed counter parts (Type1 and Type 3). Further, the joint shear capacity of the Type 2 and Type 4 specimens are improved by 8.4% and 15.6% than the corresponding specimens of Type 1 and Type 3 respectively. The present study proposes a closed form expression to compute the yield and ultimate load of the system. This is accomplished using the theory of statics and the failure pattern observed during testing. Good correlation is found between the theoretical and experimental results.

Key Words
beam-column joint; confinement; cyclic loading; design; detailing; equilibrium; seismic analysis; strong column-weak beam.

Address
Bindhu, K.R.: Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 016, Kerala, India
Jaya, K.P.: Structural Engineering Division, Anna University, 600 025, Chennai, India
Manicka Selvam, V.K.: Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala, India

Abstract
In this study, a flexibility-based finite element method considering geometric and material nonlinearities is developed for analyzing steel-concrete frame structures. The stability functions obtained from the exact buckling solution of the beam-column subjected to end moments are used to accurately capture the second-order effects. The proposed method uses the force interpolation functions, including a moment magnification due to the axial force and lateral displacement. Thus, only one element per a physical member can account for the interaction between the bending moment and the axial force in a rational way. The proposed method applies the Newton method based on the load control and uses the secant stiffness method, which is computationally both efficient and stable. According to the evaluation
result of this study, the proposed method consistently well predicts the nonlinear inelastic behavior of steel-concrete composite frames and gives good efficiency.

Key Words
nonlinear analysis; stability functions; beam-column element; composite structures; concretefilled steel tube.

Address
Jung-Woong Park and Seung-Eock Kim: Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-747, Korea

Abstract
.

Key Words
Friction; damper; hysteretic; magnetorheological; viscous.

Address
F. Weber and G. Feltrin: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Structural Engineering Research Laboratory, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
H. Distl: Maurer Sohne GmbH & Co. KG, Frankfurter Ring 193, D-80807 Munchen, Germany


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