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CONTENTS
Volume 31, Number 5, March 30 2009
 

Abstract
The present study is concerned with the stochastic linear free vibration study of laminated composite plate embedded with piezoelectric layers with random material properties. The system equations are derived using higher order shear deformation theory. The lamina material properties of the laminate are modeled as basic random variables for accurate prediction of the system behavior. A C0 finite element is used for spatial descretization of the laminate. First order Taylor series based mean centered perturbation technique in conjunction with finite element method is outlined for the problem. The outlined probabilistic approach is used to obtain typical numerical results, i.e., the mean and standard deviation of natural frequency. Different combinations of simply supported, clamped and free boundary conditions are considered. The effect of side to thickness ratio, aspect ratio, lamination scheme on scattering of natural frequency is studied. The results are compared with those available in literature and an independent Monte Carlo simulation.

Key Words
natural frequency; smart composite materials; random variables; finite element method.

Address
B. N. Singh, N. Vyas and P. Dash: Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721 302, India


Abstract
Based on numerical and experimental methods, a systematic structural evaluation of a steel natatorium in service was carried out in detail in this paper. Planning of inspection tasks was proposed firstly according to some national codes in China in order to obtain the economic and reliable results. The field visual inspections and static computation were conducted in turn under in-service environmental conditions. Further a three-dimensional finite element model was developed according to its factual geometry properties obtained from the field inspection. An analytical modal analysis was performed to provide the analytical modal properties. The field vibration tests on the natatorium were conducted and then two different system identification methods were used to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the natatorium. A good correlation was achieved in results obtained from the two system identification methods and the finite element method (FEM). The numerical and experimental results demonstrated that the main structure of the natatorium in its present status is safe and it still satisfies the demand of the national codes in China. But the roof system such as purlines and skeletons must be removed and rebuilt completely. Moreover the system identification results showed that field vibration test is sufficient to identify the reliable dynamic properties of the natatorium. The constructive suggestion on structural evaluation of the natatorium is that periodic assessment work must be maintained to ensure the natatorium

Key Words
triangle steel tube truss; field inspection; structural evaluation; dynamic measurement; operational modal analysis.

Address
Wei Liu, Wei-Cheng Gao, Yi Sun and Yan-Lei Yu: Department of Astronautics Science and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China

Abstract
In this study, the periodic seismic performance evaluation scheme is proposed using a structural health monitoring system in terms of seismic fragility. An instrumented highway bridge is used to demonstrate the evaluation procedure involving (1) measuring ambient vibration of a bridge under general vehicle loadings, (2) identifying modal parameters from the measured acceleration data by applying output-only modal identification method, (3) updating a preliminary finite element model (obtained from structural design drawings) with the identified modal parameters using real-coded genetic algorithm, (4) analyzing nonlinear response time histories of the structure under earthquake excitations, and finally (5) developing fragility curves represented by a log-normal distribution function using maximum likelihood estimation. It is found that the seismic fragility of a highway bridge can be updated using extracted modal parameters and can also be monitored further by utilizing the instrumented structural health monitoring system.

Key Words
seismic performance evaluation; seismic fragility curve; model updating; genetic algorithm; output-only modal identification.

Address
Jin-Hak Yi: Coastal Engineering and Ocean Energy Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Gyeonggi 426-744, Korea
Dookie Kim: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk, Korea
Maria Q. Feng: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA92744, USA

Abstract
Bridge columns are subjected to combined actions of axial force, shear force and bending moment during earthquakes, caused by spatially-complex earthquake motions, features of structural configurations and the interaction between input and response characteristics. Combined actions can have significant effects on the force and deformation capacity of RC columns, resulting in unexpected large deformations and extensive damage that in turn influences the performance of bridges as vital components of transportation systems. This paper evaluates the seismic response of three prototype reinforced concrete bridges using comprehensive numerical models that are capable of simulating the complex soil-structural interaction effects and nonlinear behavior of columns. An analytical approach that can capture the shearflexural interacting behavior is developed to model the realistic nonlinear behavior of RC columns, including the pinching behavior, strength deterioration and stiffness softening due to combined actions of shear force, axial force and bending moment. Seismic response analyses were conducted on the prototype bridges under suites of ground motions. Response quantities of bridges (e.g., drift, acceleration, section force and section moment etc.) are compared and evaluated to identify the effects of vertical motion, structural characteristics and the shear-flexural interaction on seismic demand of bridges.

Key Words
column; bridge; seismic response; shear-flexural interaction; hysteretic model.

Address
Jian Zhang and Shi-Yu Xu: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with a novel strengthening system. Concrete beams were strengthened with a hybrid retrofit system consisting of high strength steel cords impregnated in an inorganic fireproof matrix (Geopolymer). The strengthened reinforced concrete beams along with non-strengthened control beams were tested monotonically under four point bending loading conditions. Moreover, an analytical model is introduced, that can be used to analyze the flexural performance of the strengthened beams. The experimental results indicate that the failure of the strengthened beams was based on the yielding of the reinforcement in the tension face of the beams, followed by a local slippage of the steel cords. The flexural stiffness of the strengthened beams was significantly improved compared to the stiffness of the non-strengthened beams. In conclusion, the strengthening system can provide an effective alternative to commercially available systems.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP); inorganic resin; flexure; beams; strengthening system.

Address
Christos G. Papakonstantinou and Konstantinos Katakalos:
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02747, USA

Abstract
We performed a free vibration analysis of skew composite laminates with or without cutout based on the high-order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT). The effects of skew angles and ply orientations on the natural frequencies for various boundary conditions are studied using a nonlinear highorder finite element program developed for this study. The numerical results are in good agreement with those reported by other investigators for simple test cases, and the new results reported in this paper show the interactions between the skew angle, layup sequence and cutout size on the free vibration of the laminate. The findings highlight the importance of skew angles when analyzing laminated composite skew plates with cutout or without cutout.

Key Words
composite laminates; skew plates; finite element analysis; high-order shear deformation plate theory; free vibration; skew angles; cutout ratios.

Address
Sang-Youl Lee: Industry-Academy Cooperative Foundation, Joongbu University, 101 Daehak-ro, Chungnam 312-702, Korea
Taehyo Park: Department of Civil Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang, Seoul 133-791, Korea

Abstract
A comparative experimental study of prestressed continuous steel-concrete composite beams was carried out. Two continuous composite beams were tested, one of which was plain continuous steelconcrete composite beam, while the other was a composite beam prestressed with external tendons. Cracking behavior and the load carrying capacity of the beams were investigated experimentally. Full plasticity was developed in the mid-span section each beam, the maximum moments attained at the internal support sections however were governed by local buckling which was related to the slenderness of composite section. It was found that in hogging moment regions, the ultimate resistance of an externally prestressed composite beam would be governed by either distortional lateral buckling or local buckling, or interactive mode of these two buckling patterns. The results show that exerting prestressing on a continuous composite beam with external tendons will increase the extent of internal force and moment redistribution in the beam. The influences of local and distortional buckling on the behaviors of the composite continuous beams are discussed. The Moment redistribution and the load carrying capacity of the prestressed continuous composite beams are evaluated, and it is found that at the ultimate state, the moment redistribution in the prestrssed continuous composite beams is greater than that in non-prestressed composite beams.

Key Words
continuous composite beam; prestressed; external tendon; moment redistribution.

Address
Shiming Chen, Yuanlin Jia and Xindi Wang: School of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Abstract
The time delay in active and semi-active controls is an important research subject. Many researches on the time-delay control for deterministic systems have been made (Hu and Wang 2002, Yang et al. 1990, Abdel-Mooty and Roorda 1991, Pu 1998, Cai and Huang 2002), while the study on that for stochastic systems is very limited. The effects of the time delay on the control of nonlinear systems under Gaussian white noise excitations have been studied by Bilello et al. (2002). The controlled linear systems with deterministic and random time delay subjected to Gaussian white noise excitations have been treated by Grigoriu (1997). Recently, a stochastic averaging method for quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems with time delay has been proposed (Liu and Zhu 2007). In the present paper, a stochastic optimal time-delay control method for stochastically excited nonlinear structural systems is proposed based on the stochastic averaging method for quasi Hamiltonian systems with time delay and the stochastic dynamical programming principle. An example of stochastically excited and controlled hysteretic column is given to illustrate the proposed control method.

Key Words
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Address
Z. G. Ying and W. Q. Zhu: Department of Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China


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