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CONTENTS
Volume 38, Number 2, April25 2011
 

Abstract
A cable stayed bridge under construction has low structural damping and is not as stable as the completed bridge. Control countermeasures, such as the installation of energy dissipating devices, are thus required. In this study, the general procedure and key issues on adopting an active control device, the active mass damper (AMD), for vibration control of cable stayed bridges under construction were studied. Taking a typical cable stayed bridge as the prototype structure; a lab-scale test structure was designed and fabricated firstly. A baseline FEM model was then setup and updated according to the modal parameters measured from vibration test on the structure. A numerical study to simulate the bridge-AMD control system was conducted and an efficient LQG-based controller was designed. Based on that, an experimental implementation of AMD control of the transverse vibration of the bridge model was performed. The results from numerical simulation and experimental study verified that the AMD-based active control was feasible and efficient for reducing dynamic responses of a complex structural system. Moreover, the discussion made in this study clarified some critical problems which should be addressed for the practical implementation of AMD control on real cable-stayed bridges.

Key Words
vibration control; active mass damper; cable stayed bridge; construction.

Address
Hao Chen, Zhi Sun and Limin Sun: State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University,
Shanghai 200092, China

Abstract
In this paper the time-dependent closed-form static solution of the suspended pre-stressed biconcave and biconvex cable trusses with unmovable, movable and elastic or viscoelastic yielding supports subjected to various types of vertical load is presented. Irvine\'s forms of the deflections and the cable equations are modified because the effects of the rheological behaviour needed to be incorporated in them. The concrete cable equations in the form of the explicit relations are derived and presented. From a solution of a vertical equilibrium equation for a loaded cable truss with rheological properties, the additional vertical deflection as a time-function is determined. The time-dependent closed-form model serves to determine the time-dependent response, i.e., horizontal components of cable forces and deflection of the cable truss due to applied loading at the investigated time considering effects of elastic deformations, creep strains, temperature changes and elastic supports. Results obtained by the present closed-form solution are compared with those obtained by FEM. The derived time-dependent closed-form computational model is used for a time-dependent simulation-based reliability assessment of cable trusses as is described in the second part of this paper.

Key Words
cable truss; time-dependent closed-form computational model; creep of cable; elastic and viscoelastic yielding support; time-dependent cable equations.

Address
S. Kmet and M. Tomko: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042 00 Kosice, Slovak Republic

Abstract
One of the possible alternatives of simulation-based time-dependent reliability assessment of pre-stressed biconcave and biconvex cable trusses, the Monte Carlo method, is applied in this paper. The influence of an excessive deflection of cable truss (caused by creep of cables and rheologic changes) on its time-dependent serviceability is investigated. Attention is given to the definition of the basic random variables and their statistical functions (basic, mutually dependent random variables such as the prestressing forces of the bottom and top cable, structural geometry, the Young\'s modulus of elasticity of the cables, and the independent variables, such as permanent load, wind, snow and thermal actions). Then, the determination of the response of the cable truss to the loading effects, and the definition of the limiting values considering serviceability of the structure are performed. The potential of the method, using direct Monte Carlo technique for simulation-based time-dependent reliability assessment as a powerful tool, is emphasized. Results obtained by the First order reliability method (FORM) are compared with those obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation technique.

Key Words
cable truss; closed-form computational model; creep of cable; yielding support; random variables; reliability; serviceability; Monte Carlo method; simulation-based time-dependent reliability assessment.

Address
S. Kmet, M. Tomko and J. Brda: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042 00 Kosice, Slovak Republic

Abstract
Bernoulli-Euler beam theory is used to develop an exact dynamic stiffness matrix for the flexural-torsional coupled motion of a three-dimensional, axially loaded, thin-walled beam of doubly asymmetric cross-section. This is achieved through solution of the differential equations governing the motion of the beam including warping stiffness. The uniform distribution of mass in the member is also accounted for exactly, thus necessitating the solution of a transcendental eigenvalue problem. This is accomplished using the Wittrick-Williams algorithm. Finally, examples are given to confirm the accuracy of the theory presented, together with an assessment of the effects of axial load and loading eccentricity.

Key Words
coupled flexural-torsional motion; thin-walled beams; exact dynamic stiffness matrix; transcendental eigenvalue problem.

Address
A. Shirmohammadzade and B. Rafe: Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335/1996, Tabriz, Iran
W.P. Howson: Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK

Abstract
In this paper, we present a new explicit procedure using periodic cubic B-spline interpolation polynomials to solve linear and nonlinear dynamic equation of motion governing single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems. In the proposed approach, a straightforward formulation was derived from the approximation of displacement with B-spline basis in a fluent manner. In this way, there is no need to use a special pre-starting procedure to commence solving the problem. Actually, this method lies in the case of conditionally stable methods. A simple step-by-step algorithm is implemented and presented to calculate dynamic response of SDOF systems. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with four examples. The results were compared with those from the numerical methods such as Duhamel integration, Linear Acceleration and also Exact method. The comparison shows that the proposed method is a fast and simple procedure with trivial computational effort and acceptable accuracy exactly like the Linear Acceleration method. But its power point is that its time consumption is notably less than the Linear Acceleration method especially in the nonlinear analysis.

Key Words
B-spline; numerical solution; direct integration; explicit; dynamic equation; nonlinear; stability.

Address
S. Shojaee: Civil Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
S. Rostami and A. Moeinadini: Civil Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman, Iran

Abstract
This study introduces a new load increment method for the ductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures by including strain-hardening effects. The proposed method is a nonlinear static analysis technique employed for RC frame structures subjected to constant gravity loads and monotonically increasing lateral loads. The material nonlinearity in RC structural elements is considered by adopting plastic hinge concept which is extended by including the strain hardening as well as interaction between bending moment and axial force. Geometric non-linearity, known as second order effect, is implemented to the method as well.

Key Words
RC frames; strain-hardening; load increment method; seismic evaluation; non-linear static analysis; second-order effect.

Address
M. Gunhan Aksoylu and Konuralp Girgin: Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
Band windows are commonly used in reinforced concrete structures for the purpose of ventilation and lighting. These applications shorten the lengths of the columns and, consequently, they are subject to higher shear forces as compared with those of hollow frames. Such short columns may cause some damages during earthquakes. Hence, these effects of short columns should be minimized by choosing the dimensions of the band windows properly in order to prevent serious damages in the structure. This can be achieved by taking into account the parameters that are crucial in causing short column effect. Hence, in this study, the effects of those parameters such as the widths and heights of the band windows, the number of bays and storeys within the frame, and the heights of storeys are examined. The effects of the parameters are analyzed using time history analysis. One of the important results of these analyses, is that, the widths of the band windows should be less than 60% of the clear span between the columns, whereas, their heights should be greater than 35% of the clear storey height in order to decrease the short column effects substantially during the design of the reinforced concrete structures.

Key Words
short column effect; band windows; reinforced concrete buildings; shear force; infill; earthquake.

Address
Murat Bikce: Department of Civil Engineering, Mustafa Kemal University, Iskenderun, Turkey


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