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CONTENTS
Volume 43, Number 2, July25 2012
 

Abstract
This paper presents a curvature method for analysis of beam-columns with different materials and arbitrary cross-section shapes and subjected to combined biaxial moments and axial load. Both material and geometric nonlinearities (the p-delta effect in this case) were incorporated. The proposed method considers biaxial curvatures and uniform normal strains of discrete cross-sections of beamcolumns as basic unknowns, and seeks for a solution of the column deflection curve that satisfies force equilibrium conditions. A piecewise representation of the beam-column deflection curve is constructed based on the curvatures and angles of rotation of the segmented cross-sections. The resulting bending moments were evaluated based on the deformed column shape and the axial load. The moment curvature relationship and the beam-column deflection calculation are presented in matrix form and the Newton- Raphson method is employed to ensure fast and stable convergence. Comparison with results of analytic solutions and eccentric compression tests of wood beam-columns implies that this method is reliable and effective for beam-columns subjected to eccentric compression load, lateral bracings and complex boundary conditions.

Key Words
beam columns; curvature; biaxial moment; lateral bracing; stability

Address
Xiaobin Song: Department of Structural Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, China

Abstract
This paper presents a LMI(linear matrix inequality)-based fuzzy approach of modeling and active vibration control of geometrically nonlinear flexible plates with piezoelectric materials as actuators and sensors. The large-amplitude vibration characteristics and dynamic partial differential equation of a piezoelectric flexible rectangular thin plate structure are obtained by using generalized Fourier series and numerical integral. Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to approximate the nonlinear structural system, which combines the fuzzy inference rule with the local linear state space model. A robust fuzzy dynamic output feedback control law based on the T-S fuzzy model is designed by the parallel distributed compensation (PDC) technique, and stability analysis and disturbance rejection problems are guaranteed by LMI method. The simulation result shows that the fuzzy dynamic output feedback controller based on a two-rule T-S fuzzy model performs well, and the vibration of plate structure with geometrical nonlinearity is suppressed, which is less complex in computation and can be practically implemented.

Key Words
geometrical nonlinearity; piezoelectric flexible plate; T-S fuzzy model; output feedback control; LMI

Address
Yalan Xu and Jianjun Chen: School of Electronic & Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi

Abstract
This study presents the findings of the structural health monitoring and the real time system identification of one of the first large scale building instrumentations in Turkey for earthquake safety. Within this context, a thorough review of steps in the instrumentation, monitoring is presented and seismic performance evaluation of structures using both nonlinear pushover and nonlinear dynamic time history analysis is carried out. The sensor locations are determined using the optimal sensor placement techniques used in NASA for on orbit modal identification of large space structures. System identification is carried out via the stochastic subspace technique. The results of the study show that under ambient vibrations, stocky buildings can be substantially stiffer than what is predicted by the finite element models due to the presence of a large number of partitioning walls. However, in a severe earthquake, it will not be safe to rely on this resistance due to the fact that once the partitioning walls crack, the bare frame contributes to the lateral stiffness of the building alone. Consequently, the periods obtained from system identification will be closer to those obtained from the FE analysis. A technique to control the validity of the proportional damping assumption is employed that checks the presence of phase difference in displacements of different stories obtained from band pass filtered records and it is confirmed that the \"proportional damping assumption\" is valid for this structure. Two different techniques are implemented for identifying the influence of the soil structure interaction. The first technique uses the transfer function between the roof and the basement in both directions. The second technique uses a pre-whitening filter on the data obtained from both the basement and the roof. Subsequently the impulse response function is computed from the scaled cross correlation between the input and the output. The overall results showed that the structure will satisfy the life safety performance level in a future earthquake but some soil structure interaction effects should be expected in the North South direction.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; reinforced concrete buildings

Address
Pelin Gundes Bakir: Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Pembegulsok, Pelin apt. No:20 D:5 Suadiye, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
Two carbon fiber composite laminates, [0/90]2S and [0/+45/90/−45]S, were considered in this work to find out the perforation threshold energy to complete the perforation process and the corresponding maximum contact force. Explicit finite element commercial software, LS-DYNA, was used to predict these values. According to the simulation results, these two types of composite laminates were tested by using a vertical drop-weight testing machine. After testing, the damage condition of these specimens were observed and compared with the results from finite element analysis. The testing results indicate that the perforation threshold energy is 6 Joules for [0/90]2S and 7 Joules for [0/+45/90/−45]S, which is in good agreement with the simulation results. Also, the maximum contact force at the case of perforation threshold energy is the lowest as compared to the maximum contact forces occurring at the impact energy that is larger or less than the perforation threshold energy.

Key Words
composite; impact; finite element analysis; perforation threshold energy; contact force

Address
Shun-Fa Hwang, Jia-Ching Li: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Sec. 3, Douliu, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC
Ching-Ping Mao: Automotive Research & Testing Center, 6 Lugong S. 7th Road, Lugang, Changhua 50544, Taiwan, ROC

Abstract
This paper deals with large deformation post-buckling of a linear-elastic and hygrothermal beam with axially nonmovable pinned-pinned ends and subjected to a significant increase in swelling by an alternative method. Analytical approximate solutions for the geometrically nonlinear problem are presented. The solution for the limiting case of a string is also obtained. By coupling of the well-known Maclaurin series expansion and orthogonal Chebyshev polynomials, the governing differential equation with sinusoidal nonlinearity can be reduced to form a cubic-nonlinear equation, and supplementary condition with cosinoidal nonlinearity can also be simplified to be a polynomial integral equation. Analytical approximations to the resulting boundary condition problem are established by combining the Newton\'s method with the method of harmonic balance. Two approximate formulae for load along axis, potential strain for free hygrothermal expansion and periodic solution are established for small as well as large angle of rotation at the end of the beam. Illustrative examples are selected and compared to \"reference\" solution obtained by the shooting method to substantiate the accuracy and correctness of the approximate analytical approach.

Key Words
buckling; approximation method; large deformation; Chebyshev polynomials

Address
Yongping Yu and Youhong Sun: College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, P.R. China

Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the flexural behavior of square hollow steel section (HSS) beams subjected to pure bending. Totally six unfilled and nine ultra high performance concrete (UHPC)-filled HSS beams were tested under four-point bending until failure. The effects of the steel tube thickness, the yield strength of the steel tube and the strength of concrete on moment capacity, curvature, and ductility of UHPC-filled HSS beams were examined. The performance indices named relative ductility index (RDI) and strength increasing factor (SIF) were investigated with regard to different height-to-thickness ratio of the specimens. The flexural strengths obtained from the tests were compared with the values predicted by Eurocode 4, AISC-LRFD and CIDECT design codes. The results showed that the increase in the moment capacity and the corresponding curvature is much greater for thinner HSS beams than thicker ones. Eurocode 4 and AISC-LRFD predict the ultimate moment capacity of the all UHPC-filled HSS beams conservatively.

Key Words
concrete-filled hollow steel sections; ultra high performance concrete; flexural behavior; moment capacity; ductility; performance indices; design codes

Address
Soner Guler, Alperen copur and Metin Aydogan: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
The analysis of laterally loaded piles is generally carried out by idealizing the soil mass as Winkler springs, which is a crude approximation; however this approach gives reasonable results for many practical applications. For more precise analysis, the three- dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) is one of the best alternatives. The FEA uses the modulus of elasticity Es of soil, which can be determined in the laboratory by conducting suitable laboratory tests on undisturbed soil samples. Because of the different concepts and idealizations in these two approaches, the results are expected to vary significantly. In order to investigate this fact in detail, three-dimensional finite element analyses were carried out using different combinations of soil and pile characteristics. The FE results related to the pile deflections are compared with the closed-form solutions in which the modulus of subgrade reaction ks is evaluated using the well-known ks-Es relationship. In view of the observed discrepancy between the FE results and the closed-form solutions, an improved relationship between the modulus of subgrade reaction and the elastic constants is proposed, so that the solutions from the closed-form equations and the FEA can be closer to each other.

Key Words
closed-form solution; finite element analysis; lateral load; modulus of elasticity; pile; subgrade modulus

Address
Vishwas A. Sawant: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand, India
Sanjay Kumar Shukla: Discipline of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA 6027, Australia

Abstract
To analyze the bending and transverse shear effects of laminated composite plates, a thirteen nodes triangular element will be presented. The suggested formulations consider a parabolic variation of the transverse shear strains through the thickness. As a result, there is no need to use shear correction coefficients in computing the shear stresses. The proposed element can model both thin and thick plates without any problems, such as shear locking and spurious modes. Moreover, the effectiveness of w, n, as an independent degree of freedom, is concluded by the present study. To perform the accuracy tests, several examples will be solved. Numerical results for the orthotropic materials with different boundary conditions, shapes, number of layers, thickness ratios and fiber orientations will be presented. The suggested element calculates the deflections and stresses more accurate than those available in the literature.

Key Words
plate bending; laminate; finite element analysis (FEA); shear deformation, thin and thick plates.

Address
M. Rezaiee-Pajand, F. Shahabian and F.H. Tavakoli: Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 1111-9775, Iran


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