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CONTENTS
Volume 43, Number 4, August25 2012
 

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a continuum mechanics based 3-D beam finite element with crosssectional discretization allowing for warping displacements. The beam element is directly derived from the assemblage of 3-D solid elements, and this approach results in inherently advanced modeling capabilities of the beam element. In the beam formulation, warping is fully coupled with bending, shearing, and stretching. Consequently, the proposed beam elements can consider free and constrained warping conditions, eccentricities, curved geometries, varying sections, as well as arbitrary cross-sections (including thin/thick-walled, open/closed, and single/multi-cell cross-sections). We then study the modeling and predictive capabilities of the beam elements in twisting beam problems according to geometries, boundary conditions, and cross-sectional meshes. The results are compared with reference solutions obtained by analytical methods and solid and shell finite element models. Excellent modeling capabilities and solution accuracy of the proposed beam element are observed.

Key Words
beams; finite elements; torsion; twisting; warping; arbitrary cross-sections

Address
Kyungho Yoon, Youngyu Lee and Phill-Seung Lee: Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea

Abstract
This paper investigates the load sharing of double circular arc helical gears considering the influence of assembly errors. Based on a load sharing formulae, a three-dimensional finite element tooth contact analysis (TCA) is implemented with commercial software package ANSYS. The finite element grid for the double circular arc gear contact model is automatically generated by using the APDL (ANSYS Parameter Design Language) embedded in ANSYS. The realistic rotation of gears is achieved by using a coupling degree-of-freedom method. Numerical simulations are carried out to exemplify the proposed approach. The distribution of contact stress and bending stress under specific loading conditions are computed and compared with those obtained from Hertz contact theory and empirical formulae to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed load sharing calculation formulae and TCA approach.

Key Words
double circular arc; helical gears; load share; tooth contact analysis; finite element method

Address
Wentao Qu: School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi\'an Shiyou University, Xi\'an 710065, China
Xiongqi Peng: School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
Ning Zhao and Hui Guo: School of Mechatronics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian 710072, China

Abstract
Finite element buckling analysis of insulated transition flue ducts is carried out to determine the critical buckling load multipliers when subjected to axial compression for design process. Through this investigation, the results of numerical computations to examine the buckling strength for different possible duct shapes (cylinder, and circular-to-square) are presented. The load multipliers are determined through detailed buckling analysis taking into account the effects of geometrical construction and duct plate thickness which have great influence on the buckling load. Enhancement in the buckling capacity of such ducts by the addition of horizontal and vertical stiffeners is also investigated. Several models with varying dimensions and plate thicknesses are examined to obtain the linear buckling capacities against duct dimensions. The percentage improvement in the buckling capacity due to the addition of vertical stiffeners and horizontal Stiffeners is shown to be as high as three times for some cases. The study suggests that the best location of the horizontal stiffener is at 0.25 of duct depth from the bottom to achieve the maximum buckling capacity. A design equation estimating the buckling strength of geometrically perfect cylindrical-to-square shell is developed by using regression analysis accurately with approximately 4% errors.

Key Words
ducts buckling; plate buckling; stiffeners; finite element

Address
H.M. Ramadan: Faculty of Engineering (Civil), Cairo University, Giza, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract
Post-tensioned concrete voided slab girders are widely used in highway bridge constructions. To obtain greater section hollow rate and reduce the self-weight, the plate thickness of slab girders are designed to be small with the adoption of flat anchorage system. Since large prestress is applied to the anchor end section, it was found that longitudinal shear cracks are easy to occur along the voided slab girder. The reason is the existence of great shearing effect at the junction area between web and bottom (top) plate in the anchor end section. This paper focuses on the longitudinal anti-cracking problem at the anchor end of post-tensioned concrete voided slab girders. Two possible models for longitudinal anticracking analysis are proposed. Differential element analysis method is adopted to derive the solving formula of the critical cracking state, and then the practical analysis method for longitudinal anti-cracking is established. The influence of some factors on the longitudinal anti-cracking ability is studied. Results show that the section dimensions (thickness of bottom, web and top plate) and prestress eccentricity on web plate are the main factors that influence the anti-cracking ability. Moreover, the proposed method is applied into three engineering examples to make longitudinal anti-cracking verification for the girders. According to the verification results, the design improvements for these girders are determined.

Key Words
voided slab girder bridge; post-tensioned concrete; anchor end; longitudinal anti-cracking; critical cracking state

Address
Zhen Zhou, Shao-ping Meng and Zhao Liu: Key Laboratory of RC&PC of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China

Abstract
In this paper, the seismic analysis modeling technologies for sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) are presented with detailed descriptions for each structure, system and component (SSC) model. The complicated reactor system of pool type SFR, which is composed of the reactor vessel, internal structures, intermediate heat exchangers, primary pumps, core assemblies, and core support structures, is mathematically described with simple stick models which can represent fundamental frequencies of SSC. To do this, detailed finite element analyses were carried out to identify fundamental beam frequencies with consideration of fluid added mass effects caused by primary sodium coolant contained in the reactor vessel. The calculation of fluid added masses is performed by detailed finite element analyses using FAMD computer program and the results are discussed in terms of the ways to be considered in a seismic modeling. Based on the results of seismic time history analyses for both seismic isolation and nonisolation design, the functional requirements for relative deflections are discussed, and the design floor response spectra are proposed that can be used for subsystem seismic design.

Key Words
sodium-cooled fast reactor; seismic analysis; fluid added mass; seismic isolation

Address
Gyeong-Hoi Koo, Suk-Hoon Kim and Jong-Bum Kim: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Daejeon 305-353, Korea

Abstract
Pounding between closely located adjacent buildings is a serious issue of dense cities in the earthquake prone areas. Seismic responses of adjacent buildings subjected to earthquake induced pounding are numerically studied in this paper. The adjacent buildings are modeled as the lumped mass shear buildings subjected to earthquake acceleration and the pounding forces are modeled as the Kelvin contact force model. The Kelvin model is activated when the separation gap is closed and the buildings pound together. Characteristics of the Kelvin model are extensively explored and a new procedure is proposed to determine its stiffness. The developed model is solved numerically and a SDOF pounding case as well as a MDOF pounding case of multistory adjacent buildings are elaborated and discussed. Effects of different separation gaps, building heights and earthquake excitations on the seismic responses of adjacent buildings are obtained. Results show that the seismic responses of adjacent buildings are affected negatively by the pounding. More stories pound together and pounding is more intense if the separation gap is smaller. When the height of buildings differs significantly, the taller building is almost unaffected while the shorter building is affected detrimentally. Finally, the buildings should be analyzed case by case considering the potential earthquake excitation in the area.

Key Words
adjacent buildings; seismic response; Kelvin model; separation gap; pounding; earthquake

Address
Sadegh Naserkhaki, Farah N.A. Abdul Aziz: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Hassan Pourmohammad: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents a response spectrum analysis procedure suitable for base isolated regular buildings subjected to near fault ground motions. This procedure is based on the fact that the isolation system may be treated separately since the superstructure behaves as a rigid body on well selected isolation systems. The base isolated building is decomposed into several single-degree of freedom systems, the first one having the total weight of the building is isolated while the remainder when superposed they replicate approximately the behavior of the superstructure. The response of the isolation system is governed by a response spectrum generated for a single isolated mass. The concept of the procedure and its application for the analysis of base isolated structures is illustrated with an example. The present analysis procedure is shown to be accurate enough for the preliminary design and overcomes the limits of applicability of the conventional linear response spectrum analysis.

Key Words
response spectrum; base isolation; building; isolation system

Address
Leblouba Moussa: Curtin University, Sarawak Campus, CDT 250, 98009 Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia

Abstract
Design codes provide the minimum requirements for the design of code-compliant structures to ensure the safety of the life and property. As for code-exceeding buildings, the requirements for design are not sufficient and the approval of such structures is vague. In mainland China in recent years, a large number of code-exceeding tall buildings, whether their heights exceed the limit for the respective structure type or the extent of irregularity is violated, have been constructed. Performance-based seismic design (PBSD) approach has been highly recommended and become necessary to demonstrate the performance of code-exceeding tall buildings at least equivalent to code intent of safety. This paper proposes the general methodologies of performance-based seismic analysis and design of code-exceeding tall buildings in Mainland China. The PBSD approach proposed here includes selection of performance objectives, determination of design philosophy, establishment of design criteria for structural components and systems consistent with the desirable and transparent performance objectives, and seismic performance analysis and evaluation through extensive numerical analysis or further experimental study if necessary. The seismic analysis and design of 101-story Shanghai World Financial Center Tower is introduced as a typical engineering example where the PBSD approach is followed. The example demonstrates that the PBSD approach is an appropriate way to control efficiently the seismic damage on the structure and ensure the predictable and safe performance.

Key Words
performance-based seismic design; tall buildings; performance objective; non-prescriptive; performance evaluation

Address
Huanjun Jiang, Xilin Lu : State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, P.R. China
Jiejiang Zhu: Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, P.R. China


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