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CONTENTS
Volume 49, Number 3, Februrary10 2014
 

Abstract
Material damping affects the dynamic behaviors of engineering structures considerably, but up to till now little research is maintained on influence factors of material damping. Based on the damping-stress function of steel, the material damping of steel beams is obtained by calculating the stress distribution of the beams with an analytical method. Some key influence factors of the material damping, such as boundary condition, amplitude and frequency of excitation, load position as well as the cross-sectional dimension of a steel beam are analyzed respectively. The calculated results show that even in elastic scope, material damping does not remain constant but varies with these influence factors. Although boundary condition affects material damping to some extent, such influence can be neglected when the maximum stress amplitude of the beam is less than the fatigue limit of steel. Exciting frequency, load position and cross-section dimension have great effects on the material damping of the beam which maintain the similar changing trend under different boundary conditions respectively.

Key Words
material damping; loss factor; stress distribution; influence factors; analytical method

Address
Yuanfeng Wang, Yuhua Pan, Jie Wen, Li Su and Shengqi Mei : School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China

Abstract
Under lateral loads Framed Tube (FT) system exhibits reduction of cantilever efficiency due to the effect of shear lag. Braced Tube (BT) represents a valuable solution to overcome shear lag problems by stiffening the exterior frame with diagonal braced members. This study investigates the effect of shear lag on BT and FT under wind load. Shear lag and top-level displacement results are compared with previous findings by researchers on FT and BT systems. The investigation of the effect of various configurations in BT on the reduction the shear lag is another objective of this study. The efficiency of each structure is evaluated using the linear response spectrum analysis to obtain shear lag. STADD Pro software is used to run the dynamic analysis of the models. Results show there is relatively less shear lag in all the BT configurations compared to the FT structural system. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained result with those derived by previous studies shows that shear lag is not proportional to lateral displacement. With respect to results, optimum BT configuration in term of lower shear lag caused by lateral loads is presented.

Key Words
braced tube; framed tube; high-rise building; lateral load; shear lag; steel building

Address
Iman Mazinani, Mohd Zamin Jumaat and Z. Ismail : Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Ong Zhi Chao : Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract
The safety relating to leakage of water and pitch instability of ship chambers of the full balanced hoist vertical shiplifts has been the focus of adoption of the type of vertical shiplifts. This paper aims to remove the doubts through theoretical and engineering researches. The leakage and pitch stability of ship chambers of full balanced hoist vertical ship lifts are investigated on the basis of theoretical analysis and exploration of engineering measures. Regarding the issue of leakage of ship chambers, a mathematical model on leaking process is built and corresponding formula and coping measures are obtained which can be applied in control program of ship lifts by linking with monitoring. The concept of safety grade is put forward to seek the best technical and economic index and the corresponding technical measures are for different grades of ship lift is suggested. For the issue of pitch instability, a methodology of combining theoretical deduction and summary of achievements of design and operation of the type of the full balanced hoist shiplifts is adopted, and the formula for design about pitch stability of ship chambers is derived.

Key Words
full balanced hoist vertical shiplift; ship chamber; safety; leakage; pitch stability; critical leakage time; critical pitch angle; critical longitudinal centre distance of a hoist for dynamic pitch stability; safety coefficient for pitch dynamic stability

Address
Lekang Liao : Chang Jiang Institute of Survey PIanning Design and Research, Wuhan 4300l0, China

Abstract
Increasing usage of tank cars and their intrinsic instability due to sloshing of contents have caused growing maintenance costs as well as more frequent hazards and defects like derailment and fatigue of bogies and axels. Therefore, varieties of passive solutions have been represented to improve dynamical parameters. In this task, assuming 22 degrees of freedom, dynamic analysis of partially filled tank car traveling on a curved track is investigated. In order to consider stochastic geometry of track; irregularities have been derived randomly by Mont Carlo method. More over the fluid tank model with 1 degree of freedom is also presented by equivalent mechanical approach in terms of pendulum. An active suspension system for described car is designed by using linear quadratic optimal control theory to decrease destructive effects of fluid sloshing. Eventually, the performance of the active suspension system has been compared with that of the passive one and a study is carried out on how active suspension may affect the dynamical parameters such as displacements and Nadal\'s derailment index.

Key Words
tank cars; sloshing; fluid solid interaction; dynamic stability; derailment; active suspension system

Address
Mohammad Mahdi Feizi and Mohammad Ali Rezvani : School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16745-1833, Iran

Abstract
Considering the history of severe earthquakes and the presence of active faults in the greater Tehran region, the possibility of a destructive earthquake occurring is high and seismic hazard analysis is crucial. Gumbel distributions are commonly-used statistical distributions in earthquake engineering and seismology. Their main advantage is their basis on the largest earthquake magnitudes selected from an equal-time predefined set. In this study, the first asymptotic distribution of extremes is used to estimate seismicity parameters and peak ground acceleration (PGA). By assuming a Poisson distribution for the earthquakes, after estimation of seismicity parameters, the mean return period and the probable maximum magnitude within a given time interval are obtained. A maximum probable magnitude of 7.0 has a mean return period of 100 years in this region. For a return period of 475 years, the PGA in the greater Tehran region is estimated to be 0.39g to 0.42g, depending on local site conditions. This value is greater than that of the Iranian Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, indicating that a revision of the code is necessary.

Key Words
seismic hazard analysis; Gumbel first asymptotic distribution; returns period; probable maximum magnitude; PGA

Address
Morteza Bastami : International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran
Milad Kowsari : Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract
A finite element model for predicting the entire nonlinear behavior of reinforced high-strength concrete continuous beams is described. The model is based on the moment-curvature relations pre-generated through section analysis, and is formulated utilizing the Timoshenko beam theory. The validity of the model is verified with experimental results of a series of continuous high-strength concrete beam specimens. Some important aspects of behavior of the beams having different tensile reinforcement ratios are evaluated. In addition, a parametric study is carried out on continuous high-strength concrete beams with practical dimensions to examine the effect of tensile reinforcement on the degree of moment redistribution. The analysis shows that the tensile reinforcement in continuous high-strength concrete beams affects significantly the member behavior, namely, the flexural cracking stiffness, flexural ductility, neutral axis depth and redistribution of moments. It is also found that the relation between the tensile reinforcement ratios at critical negative and positive moment regions has great influence on the moment redistribution, while the importance of this factor is neglected in various codes.

Key Words
high-strength concrete; beams; moment redistribution; finite element method

Address
Tiejiong Lou, Sergio M.R. Lopes : CEMUC, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788, Portugal
Adelino V. Lopes : Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788, Portugal

Abstract
Fiber Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings (FREBs) are a relatively new type of laminated bearings that can be used as seismic/vibration isolators or bridge bearings. In an unbonded (U)-FREB, the bearing is placed between the top and bottom supports with no bonding or fastening provided at its contact surfaces. Under shear loads the top and bottom faces of a U-FREB roll off the contact supports and the bearing exhibits rollover deformation. As a result of rollover deformation, the horizontal response characteristics of U-FREBs are significantly different than conventional elastomeric bearings that are employed in bonded application. Current literature lacks an efficient analytical horizontal stiffness solution for this type of bearings. This paper presents two simplified analytical models for horizontal stiffness evaluation of U-FREBs. Both models assume that the resistance to shear loads is only provided by an effective region of the bearing that sustains significant shear strains. The presented models are different in the way they relate this effective region to the horizontal bearing displacements. In comparison with experimental results and finite element analyses, the analytical models that are presented in this paper are found to be sufficiently accurate to be used in the preliminary design of U-FREBs.

Key Words
fiber reinforced elastomeric bearing; preliminary design; horizontal stiffness; seismic isolator; vibration isolator; bridge bearing; unbonded application

Address
H. Toopchi-Nezhad : Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, 67149-67346, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents the processing of nonlinear features associated with a damage event by quadratic time-frequency distributions for damage identification in a frame structure. A time-frequency distribution is a function which distributes the total energy of a signal at a particular time and frequency point. As the occurrence of damage often gives rise to non-stationary, nonlinear structural behavior, simultaneous representation of the dynamic response in the time-frequency plane offers valuable insight for damage detection. The applicability of the bilinear time-frequency distributions of the Cohen class is examined for the damage assessment of a frame structure from the simulated acceleration data. It is shown that the changes in instantaneous energy of the dynamic response could be a good damage indicator. Presence and location of damage can be identified using Choi-Williams distribution when damping is ignored. However, in the presence of damping the Page distribution is more effective and offers better readability for structural damage detection.

Key Words
damage detection; nonlinear features; frame structure; time-frequency distributions; location

Address
Sabyasachi Chandra : Department of Civil Engineering, Dr. B.C. Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal, India
S.V. Barai : Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, India


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