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CONTENTS
Volume 50, Number 4, May25 2014
 

Abstract
In this study, the structural performance of a seven span masonry arch bridge was evaluated. Investigations were performed on Aspendos (Belkis) Masonry Arch Bridge which was located on road of Aspendos Acropolis City in Antalya, Turkey. The old bridge was constructed in the early of fourth century AD, but it was exposed to the earthquakes in this region and the overloading by the river water. The old bridge was severely damaged and collapsed by probably an earthquake many years ago and a new bridge was then reconstructed on the remains of this old bridge by Seljuk in the 13th century. The bridge has also been affected from overflowing especially in the spring of each year, so some protective measures should be taken for this monumental bridge. Therefore, the structural performance under these loading has to be known. For this purpose, an initial finite element model was developed for the bridge and it was calibrated according to ambient vibration test results. After that, it was analyzed for different load cases such as dead, live, earthquake and overflow. Three load combinations were taken into account by deriving from these load cases. The displacements and the stresses for these combination cases were attained and compared with each other. The structural performance of Aspendos Masonry Arch Bridge was determined by considering the demand-capacity ratio for the tensile stress of the mortar used in Aspendos Masonry Arch Bridge. After these investigations, some concluding remarks and offers were presented at the end of this study.

Key Words
finite element modeling; masonry bridges; model calibration; structural performance; tensile stress

Address
Temel Türker: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
This paper presents a finite element based numerical model to solve two dimensional bi-material problems. A bi-material beam consisting of two phase materials ceramic and metal is modelled by finite element method. The beam is subjected simultaneously to mechanical and thermal loadings. The main objective of this study is the analysis of crack deviation located in the brittle material near the interface. The effect of temperature gradient, the residual stresses and applied loads on crack initiation, propagation and deviation are examined and highlighted.

Key Words
elasto-plastic; finite elements method (FEM); fracture mechanics; interface problems; numerical methods; crack/ damage detection/identification

Address
Mourad Chama, Benali Boutabout, Wafa Bensmain and Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra : Laboratory of Mechanical and Physical of Materials (LMPM), University Djillali Liabes of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89, Street Ben M

Abstract
One of the most important structural components of steel structures is the column-base connections which are obliged to transfer horizontal and vertical loads safely to the reinforced concrete (RC) or concrete base. The column-base connections of steel or composite steel structures can be organized both moment resistant and non-moment resistant leading to different connection styles. Some of these connection styles are ordinary bolded systems, socket systems and embedded systems. The structures are frequently exposed to cycling lateral loading effects causing fatal damages on connections like columns-to-beams or columns-to-base. In this paper, connection of steel column with RC base was investigated analytically and experimentally. In the experiments, bolded connections, socket and embedded connection systems are taken into consideration by applying cyclic lateral loads. Performance curves for each connection were obtained according to experimental and analytical studies conducted and inelastic behavior of connections was evaluated accordingly. The cyclic lateral performance of the connection style of embedding the steel column into the reinforced concrete base and strengthening of steel column in upper level of base connection was found to be higher and effective than other connection systems. Also, all relevant test results were discussed.

Key Words
embedded steel column bases; steel columns; reinforced concrete; cyclic loading; finite element analysis

Address
Serhat Demir, Metin Husem and Selim Pul : Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
The number of explosive attacks on civilian structures has recently increased. Protection of structure subjected to blast load remains quite sophisticated to predict. The use of the pyramid cover system (PCS) to strengthen sandwich structures against a blast terror has great interests from engineering experts in structural retrofitting. The sandwich steel structure performance under the impact of blast wave effect is highlighted. A 3-D numerical model is proposed to study the PCS layer to strengthen sandwich steel structures using finite element analysis (FEA). Hexagonal core sandwich (XCS) steel panels are used to study structural retrofitting using the PCS layer. Field blast test is conducted. The study presents a comparison between the results obtained by both the field blast test and the FEA to validate the accuracy of the 3-D finite element model. The effects are expressed in terms of displacement-time history of the sandwich steel panels and pressure-time history effect on the sandwich steel panels as the explosive wave propagates. The results obtained by the field blast test have a good agreement with those obtained by the numerical model. The PCS layer improves the sandwich steel panel performance under impact of detonating different TNT explosive charges.

Key Words
displacement; finite element analysis; field blast test; sandwich steel structure; TNT explosive charge

Address
Sherif A. Mazek : Civil Engineering Department, Military Technical College, Kobbry El-Kobba, Khlifa El-Maamoon, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract
An analytical solution for the nonlinear in-plane free oscillations of the suspended cable which contains the quadratic and cubic nonlinearities is investigated via the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Different from the existing analytical technique, the HAM is indeed independent of the small parameter assumption in the nonlinear vibration equation. The nonlinear equation is established by using the extended Hamilton\'s principle, which takes into account the effects of the geometric nonlinearity and quasi-static stretching. A non-zero equilibrium position term is introduced due to the quadratic nonlinearity in order to guarantee the rule of the solution expression. Therefore, the mth-order analytic solutions of the corresponding equation are explicitly obtained via the HAM. Numerical results show that the approximate solutions obtained by using the HAM are in good agreement with the numerical integrations (i.e., Runge-Kutta method). Moreover, the HAM provides a simple way to adjust and control the convergent regions of the series solutions by means of an auxiliary parameter. Finally, the effects of initial conditions on the linear and nonlinear frequency ratio are investigated.

Key Words
suspended cable; nonlinear free oscillation; homotopy analysis method; Runge-Kutta method

Address
Yaobing Zhao, Ceshi Sun : College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, China
Zhiqian Wang : College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, China
Jian Peng: School of Civil Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan, China

Abstract
This paper presents a type of composite box girder with corrugated webs and concrete filled steel tube slab to overcome cracking on the web and reduce self-weight. Utilizing corrugated steel web improves the efficiency of prestressing introduced into the top and bottom slabs due to the accordion effect. In order to understand the loading capacity of such new composite structure, experimental and numerical analyses were conducted. A full-scale model was loaded monotonically to investigate the deflection, strain distribution, loading capacity and stiffness during the whole process. The experimental results show that test specimen has enough loading capacity and ductility. Based on experimental works, a finite element (FE) model was established. The load-displacement curves and stress distribution predicted by FE model agree well with that obtained from experiments, which demonstrates the accuracy of proposed FE model. Moreover, simplified theoretical analysis was conducted depending on the assumptions which were confirmed by the experimental and numerical results. The simplified analysis results are identical with the tested and numerical results, which indicate that simplified analytical model can be used to predict the loading capacity of such composite girder accurately. All the findings of present study may provide reference for the application of such structure in bridge construction.

Key Words
composite girder; corrugated steel web; steel tube slab; loading capacity; finite element analysis; simplified analytical model

Address
Jun He : School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Hunan, China
Yuqing Liu, Xiaoqing Xu : Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Laibin Li : Xingtai Road & Bridge Construction Corporation, Hebei, China

Abstract
Bonded composite-patch repair has been widely used to restore or extend the service life of damaged structures due to its effectiveness as a mechanical repair technique. In this paper using extended finite element method (XFEM), three-dimensional crack models are developed to examine the fracture behavior of centrally cracked aluminum plates repaired with single and double sided composite patches. Stress intensity factor (SIF) at the crack tip is used as the fracture criterion. In this regard, the effects of the crack lengths, patch materials, orientation of plies, adhesive and patch thickness are examined to estimate the SIF of the repaired plate and the repair performance. The obtained results show that composite patches have significant effect on reduction of the SIF at the crack tip. It is also proved that using double symmetric repair, in comparison to single one, reduces considerably SIF at the crack tip. Hence, the residual strength can be improved significantly as well as fatigue life of the structure. Investigation of ply orientation effects shows SIF increase as the ply orientation is changed from 0

Key Words
3-D crack modeling; stress intensity factor; single and double sided composite patches; adhesive; XFEM

Address
Majid Jamal-Omidi, Mehdi Falah and Davood Taherifar : Department of Aerospace Engineering, Space Research Institute, MUT, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This paper approaches the issue of seismic vulnerability assessment strategies for facade walls of traditional masonry buildings through the development of a methodology and its subsequent application to over 600 building facades from the old building stock of the historic city centre of Coimbra. Using the post-earthquake damage assessment of masonry buildings in L\'Aquila, Italy, an analytical function was developed and calibrated to estimate the mean damage grade for masonry facade walls. Having defined the vulnerability function for facade walls, damage scenarios were calculated and subsequently used in the development of an emergency planning tool and in the elaboration of an access route proposal for the case study of the historic city centre of Coimbra. Finally, the methodology was pre-validated through the comparison of a set of results obtained from its application and also resourcing to a widely accepted mechanical method on the description of the out-of-plane behaviour of facade walls.

Key Words
masonry facade walls; vulnerability index method; seismic vulnerability; damage scenarios; GIS mapping

Address
Tiago M. Ferreira, Romeu Vicente and Humberto Varum : Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Abstract
In hydroforming, the general technique employed to overcome the problem of die corner filling consist in increasing the maximum fluid pressure during the forming process. This technique, in other hand, leads to other difficulties such as thinning and rupturing of the final work piece. In this paper, a new technique has been suggested in order to produce a part with complete filled corners. In this approach, two moveable bushes have been used. So, the workpiece moves driven by both bushes simultaneously. In the first stage, system pressure increases until a maximum of 15 MPa, providing aninitial tube bulge. The results showed that the pressure in this stage have to be limited to 17 MPa to avoid fracture. In a second stage, bushes are moved keeping the constant initial pressure. The punches act simultaneously at the die extremities. Results show that the friction between part and die decreases during the forming process significantly. Also, by using this technique it is possible to produce a part with reasonable uniform thickness distribution. Other outcomes of applying this method are the lower pressures required to manufacture a workpiece with complete filled corners with no wrinkling.

Key Words
tube hydro-forming; corner radius; finite element method; rupturing

Address
Hossein GhorbaniMenghari, Hamed Ziaei Poor, Mahmoud Farzin : Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Ricardo J. Alves De Sousa : Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Portugal



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