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CONTENTS
Volume 53, Number 6, March25 2015
 

Abstract
This study investigates structural and mechanical behaviors of RC (Reinforced concrete) beams strengthened with tapered CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced polymer) sheets having various configurations. Toward this goal, experiments are performed on RC beams strengthened with four layers of CFRP sheets and each layer of the CFRP is prepared to have different length. Experimental results show that tapered CFRPs have better strengthening effect than non-tapered CFRP sheets and maximum loads of the beams with tapered CFRPs are governed by the length of first CFRP layer rather than total length of CFRP layers. In addition, analyses are performed using FE (Finite Element) models including cohesive elements to predict debonding behaviors between FRP and concrete elements. The predicted results from the FE models show good agreement with the experimental results.

Key Words
Finite Element Method (FEM); fiber reinforced; composites; analytical method; experimental investigation

Address
Naeun Kim, Young Hee Kim and Hee Sun Kim: Department of Architectural Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea

Abstract
This paper provides the results of an experimental investigation into the flexural behavior of continuous two-span unbonded post-tensioned high strength concrete (HSC) beams, strengthened by endanchored CFRP laminates of different configurations in the hogging region. Implementing two different configurations of end-anchorage systems consisting of steel plates and bolts and carefully monitoring the development of strains throughout the load history using sufficiently large number of strain gauges, the response of beams including the observed crack propagations, beam deflection, modes of failure, capacity enhancement at service and ultimate and the amount of moment redistribution are measured, presented and discussed. The study is appropriate in the sense that it covers the more commonly occurring two span beams instead of the simply supported beams investigated by others. The experiments reconfirmed the finding of others that proper installation of composite strengthening system is most important in the quality of the bond which is essential for the internal transfer of forces. It was also found that for the tested two span continuous beams, the capacity enhancement is more pronounced at the serviceability level than the ultimate. This is an important finding as the design of these beams is mostly governed by the serviceability limit state signifying the appropriateness of the suggested strengthening method. The paper provides quantitative data on the amount of this capacity enhancement.

Key Words
strengthening; CFRP laminate; HSC; unbonded post-tensioned; continuous beams; EBR

Address
Saeed Ghasemi and Ali A. Maghsoudi: Civil Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
Habib A. Bengar: Civil Engineering Department, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
Hamid R. Ronagh: Civil Engineering Department, University of Queensland, Australia

Abstract
Many vibrating mechanical systems from the real life are modeled as combined dynamical systems consisting of beams to which spring-mass secondary systems are attached. In most of the publications on this topic, masses of the helical springs are neglected. In a paper (Cha et al. 2008) published recently, the eigencharacteristics of an arbitrary supported Bernoulli-Euler beam with multiple in-span helical spring-mass systems were determined via the solution of the established eigenvalue problem, where the springs were modeled as axially vibrating rods. In the present article, the authors used the assumed modes method in the usual sense and obtained the equations of motion from Lagrange Equations and arrived at a generalized eigenvalue problem after applying a Galerkin procedure. The aim of the present paper is simply to show that one can arrive at the corresponding generalized eigenvalue problem by following a quite different way, namely, by using the so-called \"characteristic force\" method. Further, parametric investigations are carried out for two representative types of supporting conditions of the bending beam.

Key Words
Bernoulli-Euler beams; spring-mass attachment; combined system; spring mass; characteristic force

Address
Metin Gurgoze: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
Serkan Zeren: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Arel University, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
The optimum design of liquid column dampers in seismic vibration control considering system parameter uncertainty is usually performed by minimizing the unconditional response of a structure without any consideration to the variation of damper performance due to uncertainty. However, the system so designed may be sensitive to the variations of input system parameters due to uncertainty. The present study is concerned with robust design optimization (RDO) of liquid column vibration absorber (LCVA) considering random system parameters characterizing the primary structure and ground motion model. The RDO is obtained by minimizing the weighted sum of the mean value of the root mean square displacement of the primary structure as well as its standard deviation. A numerical study elucidates the importance of the RDO procedure for design of LCVA system by comparing the RDO results with the results obtained by the conventional stochastic structural optimization procedure and the unconditional response based optimization.

Key Words
seismic vibration control; liquid column vibration absorber; random system parameters; robust optimization

Address
Rama Debbarma: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, India
Subrata Chakraborty: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, India

Abstract
In this work, various higher-order shear deformation plate theories for wave propagation in functionally graded plates are developed. Due to porosities, possibly occurring inside functionally graded materials (FGMs) during fabrication, it is therefore necessary to consider the wave propagation in plates having porosities in this study. The developed refined plate theories have fewer number of unknowns and equations of motion than the first-order shear deformation theory, but accounts for the transverse shear deformation effects without requiring shear correction factors. The rule of mixture is modified to describe and approximate material properties of the functionally graded plates with porosity phases. The governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are derived by employing the Hamilton

Key Words
wave propagation; functionally graded plate; porosity; higher-order plate theory

Address
Sihame Ait Yahia, Hassen Ait Atmane and Abdelouahed Tounsi: Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria
Hassen Ait Atmane: University of Hassiba Ben Bouali, Chlef, Algeria
Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari: University of Mascara, Faculty of Science and Technology, Algeria
Abdelouahed Tounsi, Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari: Advanced Materials and Structures Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria

Abstract
In this study, the stresses and electric potential redistributions of a cylinder made from functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) are investigated. All the mechanical, thermal and piezoelectric properties are modeled as power-law distribution of volume fraction. Using the coupled electro-thermo-mechanical relations, strain-displacement relations, Maxwell and equilibrium equations are obtained including the time dependent creep strains. Creep strains are time, temperature and stress dependent, the closed form solution cannot be found for this constitutive differential equation. A semianalytical method in conjunction with the Mendelson method of successive approximation is therefore proposed for this analysis. Similar to the radial stress histories, electric potentials increase with time, because the latter is induced by the former during creep deformation of the cylinder, justifying industrial application of such a material as efficient actuators and sensors.

Key Words
mendelson method of successive approximation; time-dependent creep; cylinder; FGPM

Address
S. Kheirkhah: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran
A. Loghman: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
Reinforcement corrosion can cause serious safety deterioration to aging concrete structures exposed in aggressive environments. This paper presents an approach for reliability analyses of deteriorating reinforced concrete structures affected by reinforcement corrosion on the basis of the representative symptoms identified during the deterioration process. The concrete cracking growth and rebar bond strength evolution due to reinforcement corrosion are chosen as key symptoms for the performance deterioration of concrete structures. The crack width at concrete cover surface largely depends on the corrosion penetration of rebar due to the expansive rust layer at the bond interface generated by reinforcement corrosion. The bond strength of rebar in the concrete correlates well with concrete crack width and decays steadily with crack width growth. The estimates of cracking development and bond strength deterioration are examined by experimental data available from various sources, and then matched with symptom-based lifetime Weibull model. The symptom reliability and remaining useful life are predicted from the predictive lifetime Weibull model for deteriorating concrete structures. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach for forecasting the performance of concrete structures subject to reinforcement corrosion. The results show that the corrosion rate has significant impact on the reliability associated with serviceability and load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures during their service life.

Key Words
reliability analysis; reinforcement corrosion; concrete cracking; bond strength; residual life

Address
Hua-Peng Chen: School of Engineering, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK
Nan Xiao: College of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

Abstract
This paper introduces the combined effect of electric field, magnetic field and thermal field on edge wave propagating in a homogeneous isotropic prestressed plate of finite thickness and infinite length. The dispersion relation of edge wave has been obtained by using classical dynamical theory of thermoelasticity. The phase velocity has been computed and shown graphically for various initial stress parameter, electro-magneto parameter, electric parameter and thermoelastic coupling parameter.

Key Words
edge waves; electric field; magnetic field; temperature; initial stress; homogeneous

Address
Rajneesh Kakar: Faculty of Engineering & Technology, GNA University, Hargobindgarh, Phagwara, India
Shikha Kakar: Department of Electronics, SBBS University, Padhiana, Chotti Baradari, 163/1, Jalandhar-144022, India

Abstract
In this work, a novel simple first-order shear deformation plate theory based on neutral surface position is developed for bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates and supported by either Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundations. By dividing the transverse displacement into bending and shear parts, the number of unknowns and governing equations of the present theory is reduced, and hence, makes it simple to use. The governing equations are derived by employing the Hamilton\'s principle and the physical neutral surface concept. There is no stretching–bending coupling effect in the neutral surface-based formulation, and consequently, the governing equations and boundary conditions of functionally graded plates based on neutral surface have the simple forms as those of isotropic plates. Numerical results of present theory are compared with results of the traditional first-order and the other higher-order theories reported in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending and free vibration behaviors of functionally graded plates.

Key Words
vibration; bending; FGM; plate theory; elastic foundation; neutral surface position

Address
Abdeljalil Meksi, Samir Benyoucef, Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari and Abdelouahed Tounsi: Laboratoire des Structures et Materiaux Avances dans le Genie Civil et Travaux Publics, Universite de Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculte de Technologie, Departement de genie civil, Algeria
Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari: Departement de Genie Civil, Universite de Mascaraa, Algeria
Abdelouahed Tounsi: Material and Hydrology Laboratory, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

Abstract
Faced with the growing needs of material resources and requirements of environmental protection for achieving sustainable development, it has become necessary to study and investigate all possibilities of exploring crushed and dune sand, reusing industrial wastes and by-product, and also applying new technologies including sand concrete which can replace the conventional concretes in certain structures to surmount the deficit on construction materials, conserve natural resources, lessen the burden of pollutants to protect the environment and reduce the consumption of energy sources. This experimental study is a part of development and valorization of local materials project in Skikda region (East of Algeria). It aims at studying the effects of partial replacement of sand with marble waste as fines on several fresh and hardened properties of sand concrete in order to reuse these wastes in the concrete manufacturing, resolve the environmental problems caused by them and find another source of construction materials. To achieve these objectives, an experimental program has been carried out; it was consisted to incorporate different percentages of marble waste fines (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12%) in the formulations of sand concrete and study the development of several mechanical and rheological properties. We are also trying to find the optimal percentage of marble waste fine replaced in sand concrete that makes the strength of the concrete maximum. Obtained results showed that marble waste fines improve the properties of sand concrete and can be used as an additive material in sand concrete formulation.

Key Words
sand concrete; marble waste; mechanical properties; fines; rheological properties

Address
R. Djebien, M. Belachiaand H. Hebhoub: Department of Civil Engineering, LMGHU Laboratory, University of 20 August 1955, Skikda, Algeria

Abstract
The present paper investigates the post heating behavior of concrete beams reinforced with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars, namely carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. Thirty rectangular concrete beams were prepared and cured for 28 days. Then, beams were either subjected (in duplicates) to elevated temperatures in the range (100 to 500oC) or left at room temperature before tested under four point loading for flexural response. Experimental results showed that beams, reinforced with CFRP and GFRP bars and subjected to temperatures below 300oC, showed better mechanical performance than that of corresponding ones with conventional reinforcing steel bars. The results also revealed that ultimate load capacity and stiffness pertaining to beams with FRP reinforcement decreased, yet their ultimate deflection and toughness increased with higher temperatures. All beams reinforced with FRP materials, except those post-heated to 500oC, failed by concrete crushing followed by tension failure of FRP bars.

Key Words
RC beams; elevated temperatures; fiber reinforced polymer; flexural behavior

Address
Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad and Hanadi Almahmoud: Department of Civil Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan

Abstract
Recently, US NRC revised fracture toughness requirements as 10CFR50.61a to reduce the conservatism of 10CFR50.61. However, unlike previous studies relating to the initial regulation, structural integrity evaluations based on the alternative regulation are not sufficient. In the present study, PTS and P-T limit curve evaluations were carried out by using both regulations and resulting data were compared. With regard to the PTS evaluation, the results obtained from the alternative requirements were satisfied with the criterion whereas those obtained from the initial requirements did not meet the criterion. Also, with regard to the P-T limit curve evaluation, operating margin by 10CFR50.61a was greater than that by 10CFR50.61.

Key Words
alternative fracture toughness requirement; PTS; P-T limit curve; radiation embrittlement

Address
Sin-Ae Lee, Sang-Hwan Lee and Yoon-Suk Chang: Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung, Yongin, Kyounggi, 446-701, Republic of Korea


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