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CONTENTS
Volume 57, Number 3, February10 2016
 

Abstract
Based on the traditional mechanical model of thin-walled straight beam, the paper makes analysis and research on the pre-twisted thin-walled beam finite element numerical model. Firstly, based on the geometric deformation differential relationship, the Saint-Venant warping strain of pre-twisted thin-walled beam is deduced. According to the traditional thin-walled straight beam finite element mechanical model, the finite element stiffness matrix considering the Saint-Venant warping deformations is established. At the same time, the paper establishes the element stiffness matrix of the pre-twisted thin-walled beam based on the classic Vlasov Theory. Finally, by calculating the pre-twisted beam with elliptical section and I cross section and contrasting three-dimensional solid finite element using ANSYS, the comparison analysis results show that pre-twisted thin-walled beam element stiffness matrix has good accuracy.

Key Words
pre-twisted; thin-walled; coupling; warping; finite element model

Address
Chang Hong Chen, Yan Fei Zhu, Yao Yao: School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi\'an, 710129, China
Ying Huang: School of Civil Engineering, Xi\'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi\'an, 710055, China

Abstract
The challenges involved with fatigue damage assessment of steel catenary riser (SCR) in the touchdown zone (TDZ) are primarily due to the non-linear behaviour of the SCR-seabed interaction, considerable uncertainty in SCR-seabed interaction modelling and geotechnical parameters. The issue of fatigue damage induced by the cyclic movements of the SCR with the seabed has acquired prominence with the touch down point (TDP) interaction in the TDZ. Therefore, the SCR-seabed response is critical for reliable estimation of fatigue life in the TDZ. Various design approaches pertaining to the lateral pipe-soil resistance model are discussed. These techniques have been applied in the finite element model that can be used to analyse the lateral SCR-seabed interaction under hydrodynamic loading. This study investigates the sensitivity of fatigue performance to geotechnical parameters through a parametric study. In this study, global analyses are performed to assess the influence of vertical linear seabed springs, the lateral seabed model and the non-linear seabed model, including trench evolution into seabed, seabed normalised stiffness, re-penetration offset parameter and soil suction resistance ratio, on the fatigue life of SCRs in the TDZ.

Key Words
steel catenary riser; touchdown zone; soil model; lateral seabed; soil stiffness; geotechnical parameters; deepwater; soft clay, non-linear seabed

Address
Hany Elosta: Flexible Systems Design, FORSYS SUBSEA An FMC Technologies and Technip Company, Asker, Norway
Shan Huang and Atilla Incecik: Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

Abstract
This paper deals with the behavior of fresh concrete that is under vibration using mass-spring model (MSM). To this end, behaviors of two different full scale precast concrete molds were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experiments were performed under vibration with the use of a computerbased data acquisition system. Transducers were used to measure time-dependent lateral displacements at some points on mold while mold is empty and full of fresh concrete. Analytical modeling of molds used in experiments were prepared by three dimensional finite element method (3D FEM) using software. Modeling of full mold, using MSM, was made to solve the problem of dynamic interaction between fresh concrete and mold. Numerical displacement histories obtained from time history analysis were compared with experimental results. The comparisons show that the measured and computed results are compatible.

Key Words
mass spring model (MSM); precast concrete mold; compaction of fresh concrete; vibration; modeling of full scale mold; 3D finite element method; dynamic interaction of fresh concrete-mold

Address
Gultekin Aktas: Department of Civil Engineering, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey

Abstract
This work reports wave propagation in the nanocomposite cylinders that reinforced by straight single-walled carbon nanotubes based on a mesh-free method. Moving least square shape functions have been used for approximation of displacement field in weak form of motion equation. The straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are assumed to be oriented in specific or random directions or locally aggregated into some clusters. In this simulation, an axisymmetric model is used and also the volume fractions of the CNTs and clusters are assumed to be functionally graded along the thickness. So, material properties of the carbon nanotube reinforced composite cylinders are variable and estimated based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach. The effects of orientation, aggregation and volume fractions of the functionally graded clusters and CNTs on dynamic behavior of nanocomposite cylinders are studied. This study results show that orientation and aggregation of CNTs have significant effects on the effective stiffness and dynamic behaviors.

Key Words
dynamic analysis; nanocomposite cylinder; aggregation; Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka; functionally graded; mesh-free

Address
Rasool Moradi-Dastjerdi: Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran

Abstract
To analyze laminated composite and sandwich beams under temperature loads, a C0-type Reddy\'s beam theory considering transverse normal strain is proposed in this paper. Although transverse normal strain is taken into account, the number of unknowns is not increased. Moreover, the first derivatives of transverse displacement have been taken out from the in-plane displacement fields, so that the C0 interpolation functions are only required for the finite element implementation. Based on the proposed model, a three-node beam element is presented for analysis of thermal responses. Numerical results show that the proposed model can accurately and efficiently analyze the thermoelastic problems of laminated composites.

Key Words
C0-type Reddy\'s beam theory; thermal responses; laminated composite and sandwich beams; three-node beam element; thermal stresses

Address
Xiaoyan Fan and Zhen Wu: Key Laboratory of Liaoning Province for Composite Structural Analysis of Aerocraft and Simulation, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136, China

Abstract
The aim of this work is the development of a 2D quadrilateral isoparametric finite element model, based on a layerwise approach, for the bending analysis of sandwich plates. The face sheets and the core are modeled individually using, respectively, the first order shear deformation theory and the third-order plate theory. The displacement continuity condition at the interfaces \'face sheets-core\' is satisfied. The assumed natural strains method is introduced to avoid an eventual shear locking phenomenon. The developed element is a four-nodded isoparametric element with fifty two degrees-of-freedom (52 DOF). Each face sheet has only two rotational DOF per node and the core has nine DOF per node: six rotational degrees and three translation components which are common for the all sandwich layers. The performance of the proposed element model is assessed by six examples, considering symmetric/unsymmetric composite sandwich plates with different aspect ratios, loadings and boundary conditions. The numerical results obtained are compared with the analytical solutions and the numerical results obtained by other authors. The results indicate that the proposed element model is promising in terms of the accuracy and the convergence speed for both thin and thick plates.

Key Words
layerwise; finite element; sandwich plates; bending

Address
Mohamed-Ouejdi Belarbi, Abdelouahab Tati, Houdayfa Ounis and Adel Benchabane: Laboratoire de Genie Energetique et Matériaux, LGEM. Universite de Biskra, B.P. 145, R.P. 07000, Biskra, Algeria

Abstract
Reduced beam section (RBS) moment resisting connections are among the most economical and practical rigid steel connections developed in the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. Although the performance of RBS connection has been widely studied, this connection has not been subject to in the skewed conditions. In this study, the seismic performance of dogbone connection was investigated at different angles. The Commercial ABAQUS software was used to simulate the samples. The numerical results are first compared with experimental results to verify the accuracy. Nonlinear static analysis with von Mises yield criterion materials and the finite elements method were used to analyze the behavior of the samples The selected Hardening Strain of materials at cyclic loading and monotonic loading were kinematics and isotropic respectively The results show that in addition to reverse twisting of columns, change in beam angle relative to the central axis of the column has little impact on hysteresis response of samples. Any increase in the angle, leads to increased non-elastic resistance. As for Weak panel zone, with increase of the angle between the beam and the column, the initial submission will take place at a later time and at a larger rotation angle in the panel zone and this represents reduced amount of perpendicular force exerted on the column flange. In balanced and strong panel zones, with increase in the angle between the beam and the central axis of the column, the reduced beam section (RBS), reaches the failure limit faster and at a lower rotation angle. In connection of skewed beam, balanced panel zone, due to its good performance in disposition of plasticity process away from connection points and high energy absorption, is the best choice for panel zone. The ratio of maximum moment developed on the column was found to be within 0.84 to 1 plastic anchor point, which shows prevention of brittle fracture in connections.

Key Words
dogbone moment connection; skewed beam; reduced beam section; nonlinear analysis; cyclic loading; monotonic loading

Address
Ali Zarei, Mohammad Vaghefi and Ali R. Fiouz: Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Shahid Mahini Street, P.O. Box 75169-13817, Bushehr, Iran

Abstract
Under the interaction between dam body, dam foundation and external environment, the dam structural behavior presents the time-varying nonlinear characteristics. According to the prototypical observations, the correct identification on above nonlinear characteristics is very important for dam safety control. It is difficult to implement the description, analysis and diagnosis for dam structural behavior by use of any linear method. Based on the rescaled range analysis approach, the algorithm is proposed to identify and extract the fractal feature on observed dam structural behavior. The displacement behavior of one actual dam is taken as an example. The fractal long-range correlation for observed displacement behavior is analyzed and revealed. The feasibility and validity of the proposed method is verified. It is indicated that the mechanism evidence can be provided for the prediction and diagnosis of dam structural behavior by using the fractal identification method. The proposed approach has a high potential for other similar applications.

Key Words
dam safety; observed structural behavior; fractal feature; identification method; rescaled range analysis

Address
Huaizhi Su: State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Zhiping Wen: Department of Computer Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167, China
Feng Wang: College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China

Abstract
This study attempts to address the buckling and free vibration characteristics of an isotropic cylindrical panel subjected to non-uniform temperature rise using numerical approach. Finite element analysis has been used in the present study. The approach involves three parts, in the first part non-uniform temperature field is obtained using heat transfer analysis, in the second part, the stress field is computed under the thermal load using static condition and, the last part, the buckling and pre-stressed modal analysis are carried out to compute critical buckling temperature as well as natural frequencies and associated mode shapes. In the present study, the effect of non-uniform temperature field, heat sink temperatures and in-plane boundary constraints are considered. The relation between buckling temperature under uniform and nonuniform temperature fields has been established. Results revealed that decrease (Case (ii)) type temperature variation field influences the fundamental buckling mode shape significantly. Further, it is observed that natural frequencies under free vibration state, decreases as temperature increases. However, the reduction is significantly higher for the lowest natural frequency. It is also found that, with an increase in temperature, nodal and anti-nodal positions of free vibration mode shapes is shifting towards the location where the intensity of the heat source is high and structural stiffness is low.

Key Words
cylindrical panel; buckling strength; free vibration frequencies; free vibration mode shapes; finite element method

Address
Vinod S. Bhagat, Jeyaraj Pitchaimani and S.M. Murigendrappa: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore, 575025, India

Abstract
This paper highlights a case study that investigates the behaviour of existing bridge, West Terrace Bridge, induced by horizontal seismic loading. Unfortunately the lack of past information related to seismic activity within the NSW region has made it difficult to understand better the capacity of the structure if Earthquake occurs. The research was conducted through the University of Western Sydney in conjunction with Railcorp Australia, as part of disaster reduction preparedness program. The focus of seismic analyses was on the assessment of stress behaviour, induced by cyclic horizontal/vertical displacements, within the concrete slab and steel truss of the bridge under various Earthquake Year Return Intervals (YRI) of 1-100, 1- 200, 1-250, 1-500, 1-800, 1-1000, 1-1500, 1-2000 and 1-2500. Furthermore the stresses and displacements were rigorously analysed through a parametric study conducted using different boundary conditions. The numerical analysis of the concrete slab and steel truss were performed through the finite element software, ABAQUS. The field measurements and observation had been used to validate the results drawn from the finite element simulation. It was illustrated that under a YRI of 1/1000 the bottom chord of the steel truss failed as the stress induced surpassed the ultimate stress capacity and the horizontal displacement exceeded the allowable displacement measured in the field observations whereas the vertical displacement remained within the previously observed limitations. Furthermore the parametric studies in this paper demonstrate that a change in boundary conditions alleviated the stress distribution throughout the structure allowing it to withstand a greater load induced by the earthquake YRI but ultimately failed when the maximum earthquake loading was applied. Therefore it was recommended to provide a gap of 50mm on the end of the concrete slab to allow the structure to displace without increasing the stress in the structure. Finally, this study has proposed a design chart to showcase the failure mode of the bridge when subjected to seismic loading.

Key Words
railway bridge; seismic analysis; vulnerability; Earthquakes; ballast-top bridge

Address
Olivia Mirza: School of Computing, Engineering & Mathematics, Western Sydney University, Kingswood, NSW, Australia
Sakdirat Kaewunruen: Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education, School of Civil Engineering, the University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Darren Galia: Marten and Associate, Level 1, Library Place139 Longueville Road Lane Cove, NSW 2066, Australia


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