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CONTENTS
Volume 59, Number 3, August10 2016
 

Abstract
This paper takes a half-through steel truss arch bridge as an example. A seismic analysis is conducted with nonlinear finite element method. Contrast models are established to discuss the effect of simplified method for main girder on the accuracy of the result. The influence of seismic wave direction and wave-passage on seismic behaviors are analysed as well as the superstructure and arch ring interaction which is mostly related with the supported bearings and wind resistant springs. In the end, the application of cable-sliding aseismic devices is discussed to put forward a layout principle. The main conclusions include: (1) The seismic response isn\'t too distinctive with the simplified method of main girder. Generally speaking, the grillage method is recommended. (2) Under seismic input from different directions, arch foot is usually the mostly dangerous section. (3) Vertical wave input and horizontal wave-passage greatly influence the seismic responses of arch ring, significantly increasing that of midspan. (4) The superstructure interaction has an obvious impact on the seismic performance. Half-through arch bridges with long spandrel columns fixed has a less response than those with short ones fixed. And a large stiffness of wind resistant spring makes the the seismic responses of arch ring larger. (5) A good isolation effectiveness for half-through arch bridge can be achieved by a reasonable arrangement of CSFABs.

Key Words
half-through steel truss arch bridge; seismic performance; cable-sliding friction aseismic bearing

Address
Ruiqi Li, Xinzhe Yuan, Wancheng Yuan, Xinzhi Dang and Guoyu Shen: State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China

Abstract
This paper studies the dynamics of the lineal-located time-harmonic moving-with-constantvelocity load which acts on the hydro-elastic system consisting of the elastic plate, compressible viscous fluid - strip and rigid wall. The plane-strain state in the plate is considered and its motion is described by employing the exact equations of elastodynamics but the plane-parallel flow of the fluid is described by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. It is assumed that the velocity and force vectors of the constituents are continuous on the contact plane between the plate and fluid, and impermeability conditions on the rigid wall are satisfied. Numerical results on the velocity and stress distributions on the interface plane are presented and discussed and the focus is on the influence of the effect caused by the interaction between oscillation and moving of the external load. During these discussions, the corresponding earlier results by the authors are used which were obtained in the cases where, on the system under consideration, only the oscillating or moving load acts. In particular, it is established that the magnitude of the aforementioned interaction depends significantly on the vibration phase of the system.

Key Words
hydro-elastic system; elastic plate; compressible viscous fluid; oscillating moving load; vibration phase

Address
Surkay D. Akbarov: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Yildiz Campus, 34349, Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey; Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan,37041, Baku, Azerbaijan
Meftun I. Ismailov: Nachicivan State University, Faculty of Mathematics, Nachicivan, Azerbaijan

Abstract
In this paper, the nonlinear static and free vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli composite beam model reinforced by functionally graded single-walled carbon nanotubes (FG-SWCNTs) with initial geometrical imperfection under uniformly distributed load using finite element method (FEM) is investigated. The governing equations of equilibrium are derived by the Hamilton\'s principle and von Karman type nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are employed. Also the influences of various loadings, amplitude of the waviness, UD, USFG, and SFG distributions of carbon nanotube (CNT) and different boundary conditions on the dimensionless transverse displacements and nonlinear frequency ratio are presented. It is seen that with increasing load, the displacement of USFG beam under force loads is more than for the other states. Moreover it can be seen that the nonlinear to linear natural frequency ratio decreases with increasing aspect ratio (h/L) for UD, USFG and SFG beam. Also, it is shown that at the specified value of (h/L), the natural frequency ratio increases with the increasing the values amplitude of waviness while the dimensionless nonlinear to linear maximum deflection decreases. Moreover, with considering the amplitude of waviness, the stiffness of Euler-Bernoulli beam model reinforced by FG-CNT increases. It is concluded that the R parameter increases with increasing of volume fraction while the rate of this parameter decreases. Thus one can be obtained the optimum value of FG-CNT volume fraction to prevent from resonance phenomenon.

Key Words
nonlinear static and free vibration analysis; Euler-Bernoulli composite beam model; various distribution patterns of SWCNTs; geometrical imperfection; FEM

Address
M. Mohammadimehr and S. Alimirzaei: Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-51167, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
Methods for the seismic demands evaluation of structures require iterative procedures. Many studies dealt with the development of different inelastic spectra with the aim to simplify the evaluation of inelastic deformations and performance of structures. Recently, the concept of inelastic spectra has been adopted in the global scheme of the Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD) through Capacity-Spectrum Method (CSM). For instance, the Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA) has been proved to provide accurate results for inelastic buildings to a similar degree of accuracy than the Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) in estimating peak response for elastic buildings. In this paper, a simplified nonlinear procedure for evaluation of the seismic demand of structures is proposed with its applicability to multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems. The basic concept is to write the equation of motion of (MDOF) system into series of normal modes based on an inelastic modal decomposition in terms of ductility factor. The accuracy of the proposed procedure is verified against the Nonlinear Time History Analysis (NL-THA) results and Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis (UMRHA) of a 9-story steel building subjected to El-Centro 1940 (N/S) as a first application. The comparison shows that the new theoretical approach is capable to provide accurate peak response with those obtained when using the NL-THA analysis. After that, a simplified nonlinear spectral analysis is proposed and illustrated by examples in order to describe inelastic response spectra and to relate it to the capacity curve (Pushover curve) by a new parameter of control, called normalized yield strength coefficient (t). In the second application, the proposed procedure is verified against the NL-THA analysis results of two buildings for 80 selected real ground motions

Key Words
nonlinear analysis; capacity; ductility; static; dynamic; response spectrum

Address
Benazouz Chikh, Youcef Mehani: Earthquake Engineering Division, National Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Hussein Dey, Algiers, Algeria
Moussa Leblouba: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Abstract
Nanobeams are widely used as a structural element for nanodevices and nanomachines. The development of nano-sized machines depends on proper understanding of mechanical behavior of these nano-sized beam elements. Small length scales such as lattice spacing between atoms, surface properties, grain size etc. are need to be considered when applying any classical continuum model. In this study, Eringen\'s nonlocal elasticity theory is incorporated into classical beam model considering the effects of axial extension and the shear deformation to capture unique static behavior of the nanobeams under continuum mechanics theory. The governing differential equations are obtained for curved beams and solved exactly by using the initial value method. Circular uniform beam with concentrated loads are considered. The displacements, slopes and the stress resultants are obtained analytically. A detailed parametric study is conducted to examine the effect of the nonlocal parameter, mechanical loadings, opening angle, boundary conditions, and slenderness ratio on the static behavior of the nanobeam.

Key Words
curved nanobeams; nonlocal elasticity; in-plane statics; exact solution; initial value method

Address
Ekrem Tufekci, Serhan A. Aya and Olcay Oldac: Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Gumussuyu 34437, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
In-plane and out-of-plane free vibration analysis of Timoshenko curved beams is addressed based on the isogeometric method, and an effective scheme to avoid numerical locking in both of the two patterns is proposed in this paper. The isogeometric computational model takes into account the effects of shear deformation, rotary inertia and axis extensibility of curved beams, and is applicable for uniform circular beams, and more complicated variable curvature and cross-section beams as illustrated by numerical examples. Meanwhile, it is shown that, the Cp–1-continuous NURBS elements remarkably have higher accuracy than the finite elements with the same number of degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, for in-plane or out-of-plane vibration analysis of Timoshenko curved beams, the NURBS-based isogeometric method also exhibits locking effect to some extent. To eliminate numerical locking, the selective reduced one-point integration and B projection element based on stiffness ratio is devised to achieve locking free analysis for in-plane and out-of-plane models, respectively. The suggested integral schemes for moderately slender models obtain accurate results in both dominated and non-dominated regions of locking effect. Moreover, this strategy is effective for beam structures with different slenderness. Finally, the influence factors of structural parameters of curved beams on their natural frequency are scrutinized.

Key Words
Timoshenko curved beams; in-plane and out-of-plane free vibration; isogeometric analysis; NURBS elements; numerical locking

Address
Hongliang Liu and Dixiong Yang: Department of Engineering Mechanics, State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment,Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Xuefeng Zhu: School of Automobile Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China

Abstract
We describe a stress analysis of a single leaf flexure under torsion in which the warping effect is considered. The theoretical equations for the warping normal stress (oxx) and shear stresses (oxz and oxy) are derived by applying the warping function of a rectangular cross-sectional beam and the twist angle equation that includes the warping torsion. The results are compared with those of the non-warping case and are verified using finite element analysis (FEA). A sensitivity analysis over the length, width, and thickness is performed and verified via FEA. The results show that the errors between the theory of warping stress results and the FEA results are lower than 4%. This indicates that the proposed theoretical stress analysis with warping is accurate in the torsion analysis of a single leaf flexure.

Key Words
torsion; warping; warping normal stress; leaf flexure; warping shear stress

Address
Nghia Huu Nguyen: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Nha Trang University, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam
Ji-Soo Kim: Research Institute, OSG Korea, Daegu 704-946, Republic of Korea
Dong-Yeon Lee: School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Minarets are almost the inevitable part of Mosques in Islam and according to some, from a philosophical point of view, today they symbolize the spiritual elevation of man towards God. Due to slenderness, minarets are susceptible to earthquakes and wind loads. They are mostly built in a masonry style by using cut limestone blocks or occasionally by using bricks. In this study, one minaret (M1 Minaret) of one of the charmest mosques of Turkey, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, popularly known as Blue Mosque, built between 1609 and 1616 on the order of Sultan Ahmed by the architect Mehmet Agha is investigated under some registered earthquake loads. According to historical records, a great earthquake hit Istanbul and/or its close proximity approximately every 250 years. Ottomans tackled with the problem of building earthquake resistant, slender minarets by starting to use forged iron connectors with lead as a filler to fix them to the upper and lower and to adjacent stones instead of using traditional mortar only. Thus, the discrete stones are able to transfer tensile forces in some sense. This study investigates the contribution of lead to the energy absorption capacity of the minaret under extensive earthquakes occurred in the region. By using the software ANSYS/LS-DYNA in modelling and investigating the minaret nonlinearly, it is found out that under very big recorded earthquakes, the connectors of vertical cast iron-lead mechanism play very important role and help to keep the structure safe.

Key Words
historical masonry structures; finite element analysis; discrete element method; earthquake analysis; earthquake resistant structures

Address
Turgut Kocatürk and Yildirim Serhat Erdoğan: Department of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
There are many theoretical analyses and experimental studies of the hydrodynamics for the tension leg platform (TLP) of a floating wind turbine. However, there has been little research on the arrangement of the TLP\'s internal structure. In this study, a TLP model and a 5-MW wind turbine model as proposed by the Minstitute of Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have been adopted, respectively, to comprehensively analyze wind effects and wave and current combinations. The external additional coupling loads on the TLP and the effects of the loads on variables of the internal structure have been calculated. The study investigates preliminary layout parameters-namely, the thickness of the tension leg body, the contact mode of the top tower on the tension leg, the internal stiffening arrangement, and the formation of the spoke structure-and conducts sensitivity analyses of the TLP internal structure. Stress is found to be at a maximum at the top of the tension leg structure and the maximum stress has low sensitivity to the load application point. Different methods of reducing maximum stress have been researched and analyzed, and the effectiveness of these methods is analyzed. Filling of the spoke structure with concrete is discussed. Since the TLP structure for offshore wind power is still under early exploration, arrangements and the configuration of the internal structure, exploration and improvements are ongoing. With regard to its research and analysis process, this paper aims to guide future applications of tension leg structures for floating wind turbine.

Key Words
floating wind turbine; tension leg platform; structural design

Address
H.F. Wang, Y.H. Fan: School of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China
Inigo Moreno: Polytechnic School, University of Burgos, Burgos, Spain

Abstract
In this study, static bending of edge cracked micro beams is studied analytically under uniformly distributed transverse loading based on modified couple stress theory. The cracked beam is modelled using a proper modification of the classical cracked-beam theory consisting of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The deflection curve expressions of the edge cracked microbeam segments separated by the rotational spring are determined by the Integration method. The elastic curve functions of the edge cracked micro beams are obtained in explicit form for cantilever and simply supported beams. In order to establish the accuracy of the present formulation and results, the deflections are obtained, and compared with the published results available in the literature. Good agreement is observed. In the numerical study, the elastic deflections of the edge cracked micro beams are calculated and discussed for different crack positions, different lengths of the beam, different length scale parameter, different crack depths, and some typical boundary conditions. Also, the difference between the classical beam theory and modified couple stress theory is investigated for static bending of edge cracked microbeams. It is believed that the tabulated results will be a reference with which other researchers can compare their results.

Key Words
open edge crack; modified couple stress theory; cracked microbeam

Address
Seref Doguscan Akbas: Department of Civil Engineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa, Turkey


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