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CONTENTS
Volume 61, Number 2, January25 2017
 

Abstract
This paper summarizes the study on effect of ceramic waste powder as partial substitute to cement in binary blend and along with silica fume in ternary blend high strength concrete in normal and aggressive environments. Strength parameters such as compression & tension and durability indices such as corrosion measurement, deterioration, water absorption and porosity were studied. Ceramic waste powder was used in three different percentages namely 5, 10 and 15 with constant percentage of silica fume (1%) as substitutes to cement in ternary blend high strength concrete was investigated. After a detailed investigation, it was understood that concrete with 15% ceramic waste powder registered maximum performance. Increase of ceramic waste powder offered better resistance to deterioration of concrete.

Key Words
ceramic waste powder; H2SO4; NaCl; half cell potential; compressive strength

Address
B. Karthikeyan and G. Dhinakaran: School of Civil Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract
Seismic pounding between adjacent buildings with inadequate separation and different dynamic characteristics can cause severe damage to the colliding buildings. Efficient estimation of the maximum pounding force is required to control the extent of damage in adjacent structures or develop an appropriate mitigation method. In this paper, an analytical approach on the basis of statistical relations is presented for approximate computation of extreme value of pounding force between two adjacent structures with equal or unequal heights subjected to stationary and non-stationary excitations. The nonlinearity of adjacent structures is considered using Bouc-Wen model of hysteresis and the pounding effect is simulated by applying the nonlinear viscoelastic model. It is shown that the proposed approach can significantly save computational costs by obviating the need for performing dynamic analysis. To assess the reliability and accuracy of the proposed approach, the results are compared with those obtained from nonlinear dynamic analysis.

Key Words
pounding force; probability distribution; random vibration; Bouc-Wen; adjacent building

Address
Sepideh Rahimi and Masoud Soltani: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalaale-al Ahmad Ave., Tehran, Iran

Abstract
In this study, the vibration of an electrostatically actuated micro cantilever beam is analyzed in which a viscoelastic layer covers a portion of the micro beam length. This proposed model is considered as the main element of mass and pollutant micro sensors. The nonlinear motion equation is extracted by means of Hamilton principle, considering nonlinear shortening effect for Euler-Bernoulli beam. The non-linear effects of electrostatic excitation, geometry and inertia have been taken into account. The viscoelastic model is assumed as Kelvin-Voigt model. The motion equation is discretized by Galerkin approach. The linear free vibration mode shapes of non-uniform micro beam i.e. the linear mode shape of the system by considering the geometric and inertia effects of viscoelastic layer, have been employed as comparison function in the process of the motion equation discretization. The discretized equation of motion is solved by the use of multiple scale method of perturbation theory and the results are compared with the results of numerical Runge-Kutta approach. The frequency response variations for different lengths and thicknesses of the viscoelastic layer have been founded. The results indicate that if a constant volume of viscoelastic layer is to be deposited on the micro beam for mass or gas sensor applications, then a modified configuration may be found by using the analysis of this paper.

Key Words
electrostatic excitation; Galerkin, micro sensor; multiple scale perturbation method; viscoelastic

Address
E. Poloei, M. Zamanian and S.A.A. Hosseini: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, Mofatteh Avenue, P.O. Box 15719-14911, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to study the geometrically nonlinear free vibration of functionally graded nano/micro beams (FGNBs) based on the modified couple stress theory. For practical applications, some analytical expressions of nonlinear frequencies for FGNBs on a nonlinear Pasternak foundation are developed. Hamilton\'s principle is employed to obtain nonlinear governing differential equations in the context of both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories for a comprehensive investigation. The modified continuum theory contains one material length scale parameter to capture the size effect. The variation of two-constituent material along the thickness is modeled using Reddy\'s power-law. Also, the Mori-Tanaka method as an accurate homogenization technique is implemented to estimate the effective material properties of the FGNBs. The results are presented for both hinged-hinged and clamped-clamped boundary conditions. The nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations using Galerkin method and then the powerful method of homotopy analysis is utilized to obtain the semi-analytical solutions. Eventually, the presented analytical expressions are used to examine the influences of the length scale parameter, material gradient index, and elastic foundation on the nonlinear free vibration of FGNBs.

Key Words
modified couple stress theory; nonlinear vibration; functionally graded nano/micro-beam; homotopy analysis method

Address
AliReza Setoodeh and Mohammad Rezae: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555, Iran

Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the propagation of thermoelastic surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order of nth order including time rate of strain under the influence of rotation. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effectsof rotation andthermal onsurface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleighwaves are discussed.The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. Our results for viscoelastic of order zero are well agreed to fibre-reinforced materials. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium.Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation on fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media are very pronounced.

Key Words
fibre-reinforced; viscoelastic; surface waves; rotation; anisotropic; thermoelastic

Address
A.M. Abd-Alla: Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Egypt
S.M. Abo-Dahab: Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, SVU, Qena 83523, Egypt; Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University 888, Saudi Arabia
Aftab Khan: Department of Mathematics, COMSATS, Institute of Information, Park Road, Chakshahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract
The aim of this study is to develop a semi-analytical method to investigate fluid-structure coupling of concentric double shells with different lengths and elastic behaviours. Co-axial shells constitute a cylindrical circular container and a baffle submerged inside the stored fluid. The container shell is made of functionally graded materials with mechanical properties changing through its thickness continuously. The baffle made of steel is fixed along its top edge and submerged inside fluid such that its lower edge freely moves. The developed approach is verified using a commercial finite element computer code. Although the model is presented for a specific case in the present work, it can be generalized to investigate coupling of shellplate structures via fluid. It is shown that the coupling between concentric shells occurs only when they vibrate in a same circumferential mode number, n. It is also revealed that the normalized vibration amplitude of the inner shell is about the same as that of the outer shell, for narrower radial gaps. Moreover, the natural frequencies of the fluid-coupled system gradually decrease and converge to the certain values as the gradient index increases.

Key Words
coupled vibration; concentric shells; fluid-structure interaction; functionally graded materials

Address
Ehsan Moshkelgosha: Research Department, Samin Sanaat Shaigan Company, Isfahan, Iran
Ehsan Askari: CMEMS - Center for Microelectromechanical Systems, University of Minho, Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Kyeong-Hoon Jeong: Mechanical Engineering Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Korea
Ali Akbar Shafiee: Mechanical Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract
The increasing lack of good quality soils allowing the development of roadway, motorway, or railway networks, as well as large scale industrial facilities, necessitates the use of reinforcement techniques. Their aim is the improvement of the global performance of compressible soils, both in terms of settlement reduction and increase of the load bearing capacity. Among the various available techniques, the improvement of soils by incorporating vertical stiff piles appears to be a particularly appropriate solution, since it is easy to implement and does not require any substitution of significant soft soil volumes. The technique consists in driving a group of regularly spaced piles through a soft soil layer down to an underlying competent substratum. The surface load being thus transferred to this substratum by means of those reinforcing piles, which illustrates the case of a piled embankment. The differential settlements at the base of the embankment between the soft soil and the stiff piles lead to an \"arching effect\" in the embankment due to shearing mechanisms. This effect, which can be accentuated by the use of large pile caps, allows partial load transfer onto the pile, as well as surface settlement reduction, thus ensuring that the surface structure works properly. A technique for producing rigid piles has been developed to achieve in a single operation a rigid circular pile associated with a cone shaped head reversed on the place of a rigid circular pile. This technique has been used with success in a pile-supported road near Bourgoin-Jallieu (France). In this article, a numerical study based on this real case is proposed to highlight the functioning mode of this new technique in the case of industrial slabs.

Key Words
piled embankment; numerical modeling; soil/structure interaction

Address
Daniel Dias: 3SR Laboratory, Grenoble Alpes University, Grenoble, France
Jérôme Grippon: Franki Fondation, Chaponost, France

Abstract
In this study, self-supporting roofing elements especially convenient for large-span structures such as stadium, airport terminal, mall, coliseum, etc. were examined with respect to critical buckling load. These elements were assumed as laminated composite plates and, variation of free-edge forms, cutout types and lamination configurations were used as design parameters. Based on the architectural feature and structural requirements, the effects of curvilinear free-edge form on critical buckling load were focused on in this research. Within this scope, 14 types of lamination configuration were specified according to various orientation angle, number and thickness of plies with a constant value of total plate thickness. Besides that, 6 different types of cutout and 3 different free-edge forms were determined. By combining all these parameters 294 different critical buckling load analyses were performed by using ANSYS Mechanical software based on finite element method. Effects of those parameters on critical buckling load were evaluated referring to the obtained results. According to the results presented here, it may be concluded that lamination conditions have more significant influence on the critical buckling load values than the other parameters. On the other hand, it is perceived that curvilinear free-edge forms explicitly undergo changings depending on lamination conditions. For future work, existence of delamination might be considered and progression of the defect could be investigated by using non-linear analysis.

Key Words
laminated composite plate; self-supporting; curvilinear free-edge; plate with cutout, finite element method; stability

Address
Zihni Zerin, Muhammed Fatih Başoğlu and Ferruh Turan: Department of Civil Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun 55139, Turkey

Abstract
In this study was investigated of possibility using the recorded micro tremor data on ground level as ambient vibration input excitation data for investigation and application Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) on the bench-scale earthquake simulator (The Quanser Shake Table) for model steel structures. As known OMA methods (such as EFDD, SSI and so on) are supposed to deal with the ambient responses. For this purpose, analytical and experimental modal analysis of a model steel structure for dynamic characteristics was evaluated. 3D Finite element model of the building was evaluated for the model steel structure based on the design drawing. Ambient excitation was provided by shake table from the recorded micro tremor ambient vibration data on ground level. Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition is used for the output only modal identification. From this study, best correlation is found between mode shapes. Natural frequencies and analytical frequencies in average (only) 2.8% are differences.

Key Words
experimental modal analysis; modal parameter; EFDD; shake table

Address
Azer A. Kasimzade and Sertac Tuhta: Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Atakum/Samsun, Turkey

Abstract
The Fleck-Hutchinson theory on strain gradient plasticity (SGP), proposed in Adv. Appl Mech 33 (1997) 295, has recently been reformulated by adopting the strategy of decomposing the second order strain presented by Lam et al. in J Mech Pays Solids 51 (2003) 1477. The newly built SGP satisfies the non negativity of plastic dissipation, which is still an outstanding issue in other SGP theories. Furthermore, it explicitly shows how elastic strain gradients and corresponding elastic characteristic length scales come into play in general elastic-plastic loading histories. In this study, the relation between elastic length scales and plastic length scales is investigated by taking wire torsion as an example. It is concluded that the size effects arising when two sets of length scales are of the same order are essentially elastic instead of plastic.

Key Words
strain gradient elasticity (SGE); strain gradient plasticity (SGP); plastic dissipation; length scale; size effect

Address
Jinxing Liu, Wen Wang, Ziyu Zhao: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China
Ai Kah Soh: School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Abstract
The main contribution of the present paper is to propose an intelligent fuzzy inference system approach for modeling the debonding strength of masonry elements retrofitted with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). To achieve this, the hybrid of meta-heuristic optimization methods and adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is implemented. In this study, particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (PSOPC) and real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) are used to determine the best parameters of ANFIS from which better bond strength models in terms of modeling accuracy can be generated. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed PSOPC-ANFIS and RCGA-ANFIS approaches, the numerical results are compared based on a database from laboratory testing results of 109 sub-assemblages. The statistical evaluation results demonstrate that PSOPC-ANFIS in comparison with ANFIS-RCGA considerably enhances the accuracy of the ANFIS approach. Furthermore, the comparison between the proposed approaches and other soft computing methods indicate that the approaches can effectively predict the debonding strength and that their modeling results outperform those based on the other methods.

Key Words
debonding strength; Fiber Reinforced Polymer; adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system; particle swarm optimization; real coded genetic algorithm

Address
Mohsen Khatibinia: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
Mohammad Reza Mohammadizadeh: Department of Civil Engineering, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Abstract
Element based differential quadrature method (EDQM) has been applied to analyze static, stability and free vibration of non-homogeneous orthotropic rectangular plates of variable or stepped thickness. The Young\"s modulus and the density are assumed to vary in exponential form in X-direction whereas the thickness is assumed to vary linear, parabolic or exponential variation in one or two directions. In-plane loading is assumed to vary linearly. Various combinations of clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions (regular and irregular boundary) have been considered . Continuous plates could also be handled with ease. In this paper, formulation for equilibrium, buckling and free vibration problems is discussed and several numerical examples are solved using EDQM and compared with the published results.

Key Words
EDQM; orthotropy; non-homogeneity; elastic foundation; buckling; vibration; mode shape

Address
S. Rajasekaran: Department of Civil Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 641004, India


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