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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 2, June 2015
 

Abstract
The knowledge of the behavior of any roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam and its foundation is gained by studying the service action of the dam and its foundation using measurements of an external and internal nature. The information by which a continuing assurance of structural safety of the RCC dam can be gauged is of primary importance. Similarly, the fact that the information on structural and thermal behavior and the properties of concrete that may be used to give added criteria for use in the design of future RCC dams is of secondary importance. Wide spread attention is now being given to the installation of more expensive instrumentation for studying the behavior of concrete dams and reservoirs and forecasting of any adverse trends. In view of this, the paper traces installation and need of the comprehensive instrumentation scheme implemented to monitor the structural and thermal behavior of 102.4 m high RCC dam constructed near Mumbai in India. An attempt is made in the present paper to emphasize the need to undertake an instrumentation program and evaluate their performance during construction and post construction stage of RCC structures. Few typical results, regarding the thermal and structural behavior of the dam, obtained through instrumentation installed at the dam site are presented and compared with the design considerations. The fair agreement is seen in the response observed through instrumentation with that governing the design criteria.

Key Words
roller compacted concrete (RCC); instrumentation; thermocouples; thermal stresses; mass concrete structure (MCS)

Address
V.B. Ashtankar: 1Executive Engineer, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai- 400001, India
H.S. Chore: Department of Civil Engineering, DattaMeghe College of Engineering, Airoli, Navi Mumbai -400708, India

Abstract
This paper presents a new method for seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings with reference to their operational limit state. The importance of this kind of evaluation arises from the civil protection necessity that some buildings, considered strategic for seismic emergency management, should retain their functionality also after a destructive earthquake. The method is based on the identification of experimental modal parameters from ambient vibrations measurements. The knowledge of the experimental modes allows to perform a linear spectral analysis computing the maximum structural drifts of the building caused by an assigned earthquake. Operational condition is then evaluated by comparing the maximum building drifts with the reference value assigned by the Italian Technical Code for the operational limit state. The uncertainty about the actual building seismic frequencies, typically significantly lower than the ambient ones, is explicitly taken into account through a probabilistic approach that allows to define for the building the Operational Index together with the Operational Probability Curve. The method is validated with experimental seismic data from a permanently monitored public building: by comparing the probabilistic prediction and the building experimental drifts, resulting from three weak earthquakes, the reliability of the method is confirmed. Finally an application of the method to a strategic building in Italy is presented: all the procedure, from ambient vibrations measurement, to seismic input definition, up to the computation of the Operational Probability Curve is illustrated.

Key Words
ambient vibrations; operational modal analysis; vulnerability assessment of buildings; operational condition

Address
Federico Mori: National Research Centre - IGAG - Montelibretti (Rome), Italy
Daniele Spina: Department of Civil Protection - Seismic and Volcanic Risk Office - Via Vitorchiano 4 - 00189 Rome, Italy

Abstract
Civil engineering infrastructure is aging and requires cost-effective maintenance strategies to enable infrastructure systems operate reliably and sustainably. This paper presents an approach for determining risk-cost balanced repair strategy of corrosion damaged reinforced concrete structures with consideration of uncertainty in structural resistance deterioration. On the basis of analytical models of cover concrete cracking evolution and bond strength degradation due to reinforcement corrosion, the effect of reinforcement corrosion on residual load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete structures is investigated. A stochastic deterioration model based on gamma process is adopted to evaluate the probability of failure of structural bearing capacity over the lifetime. Optimal repair planning and maintenance strategies during the service life are determined by balancing the cost for maintenance and the risk of structural failure. The method proposed in this study is then demonstrated by numerical investigations for a concrete structure subjected to reinforcement corrosion. The obtained results show that the proposed method can provide a risk cost optimised repair schedule during the service life of corroded concrete structures.

Key Words
reinforcement corrosion; residual strength; stochastic deterioration modelling; time-dependent reliability; optimised maintenance strategy

Address
Jaya Nepal and Hua-Peng Chen: School of Engineering, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK

Abstract
Bridge scour is the predominant cause of overwater bridge failures in North America and around the world. Several sensing systems have been developed over the years to detect the extent of scour so that preventative actions can be performed in a timely manner. These sensing systems have drawbacks, such as signal inaccuracy and discontinuity, installation difficulty, and high cost. Therefore, attempts to develop more efficient monitoring schemes continue. In this study, the viability of using optical dissolved oxygen (DO) probes for monitoring scour depths was explored. DO levels are very low in streambed sediments, as compared to the standard level of oxygen in flowing water. Therefore, scour depths can be determined by installing sensors to monitor DO levels at various depths along the buried length of a bridge pier or abutment. The measured DO is negligible when a sensor is buried but would increase significantly once scour occurs and exposes the sensor to flowing water. A set of experiments was conducted in which four dissolved oxygen probes were embedded at different soil depths in the vicinity of a mock bridge pier inside a laboratory flume simulating scour conditions. The results confirmed that DO levels jumped drastically when sensors became exposed during scour hole evolution, thereby providing discrete measurements of the maximum scour depth. Moreover, the DO probes could detect any subsequent refilling of the scour hole through the deposition of sediments. The effect of soil permeability on the sensing response time was also investigated.

Key Words
bridge; dissolved oxygen optode; flood; hydraulic structures; scour; structural healthcmonitoring

Address
Faezeh Azhari and Kenneth J. Loh: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Peter J. Scheel: Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA

Abstract
In this paper lead zirconate titanate transducers (PZT) are employed for damage detection of four reinforced concrete (RC) column specimens retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) jackets. A major disadvantage of FRP jacketing in RC members is the inability to inspect visually if the concrete substrate is damaged and in such case to estimate the extent of damage. The parameter measured during uniaxial compression tests at random times for known strain values is the real part of the complex number of the Electromechanical Admittance (Conductance) of the sensors, obtained by a PXI platform. The transducers are placed in specific positions along the height of the columns for detecting the damage in different positions and carrying out conclusions for the variation of the Conductance in relation to the position the failure occurred. The quantification of the damage at the concrete substrate is achieved with the use of the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) index, which is evaluated for the corresponding strain values. The experimental results provide evidence that PZT transducers are sensitive to damage detection from an early stage of the experiment and that the use of PZT sensors for monitoring and detecting the damage of FRP-retrofitted reinforced concrete members, by using the Electromechanical Admittance (EMA) approach, can be a highly promising method.

Key Words
damage detection; electromechanical admittance; FRP jackets; PZT transducers; reinforced concrete

Address
Efi A. Tzoura, Thanasis C. Triantafillou, Aristomenis Tsantilis, Corina G. Papanicolaou1d and Dimitris L. Karabalis: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras, Greece
Costas Providakis: Department of Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Chania, Greece


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