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CONTENTS
Volume 2, Number 3, September 2015
 

Abstract
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Key Words
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Address
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Abstract
Assessing the condition of paint on civil structures is an important but challenging and costly task, in particular when it comes to large and complex structures. Current practices of visual inspection are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. In addition, this task usually relies on the experience and subjective judgment of individual inspectors. In this study, hyperspectral imaging and classification techniques are proposed as a method to objectively assess the state of the paint on a civil or other structure. The ultimate objective of the work is to develop a technology that can provide precise and automatic grading of paint condition and assessment of degradation due to age or environmental factors. Towards this goal, we acquired hyperspectral images of steel surfaces located at long (mid-range) and short distances on the Sydney Harbour Bridge with an Acousto-Optics Tunable filter (AOTF) hyperspectral camera (consisting of 21 bands in the visible spectrum). We trained a multi-class Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier to automatically assess the grading of the paint from hyperspectral signatures. Our results demonstrate that the classifier generates highly accurate assessment of the paint condition in comparison to the judgement of human experts.

Key Words
paint assessment; civil structures; corrosion; multi-class SVM; hyperspectral imaging

Address
Cong Phuoc Huynh and Fatih Porikli, National ICT Australia (NICTA), Australia; Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Australia
Samir Mustapha, National ICT Australia (NICTA), Australia; Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Peter Runcie, National ICT Australia (NICTA), Australia

Abstract
The safety and performance of bridges could be monitored and evaluated by Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems. These systems try to identify and locate the damages in a structure and estimate their severities. Current SHM systems are applied to a single bridge, and they have not been used to monitor the structural condition of a network of bridges. This paper propose a new method which will be used in Synthetic Rating Procedures (SRP) developed by the authors of this paper and utilizes SHM systems for monitoring and evaluating the condition of a network of bridges. Synthetic rating procedures are used to assess the condition of a network of bridges and identify their ratings. As an additional part of the SRP, the method proposed in this paper can continuously monitor the behaviour of a network of bridges and therefore it can assist to prevent the sudden collapses of bridges or the disruptions to their serviceability. The method could be an important part of a bridge management system (BMS) for managers and engineers who work on condition assessment of a network of bridges.

Key Words
synthetic rating procedures, structural health monitoring systems, strain gauges, deflection sensors, bridge management systems, criticality and vulnerability assessment

Address
Mehran Aflatooni, Tommy H.T Chan and David P. Thambiratnam, School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Abstract
The paper presents an investigation into the mode conversion and scattering characteristics of guided waves at delaminations in laminated composite beams. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model, which is experimentally verified using data measured by 3D scanning laser vibrometer, is used in the investigation. The study consists of two parts. The first part investigates the excitability of the fundamental anti-symmetric mode (A0) of guided wave in laminated composite beams. It is found that there are some unique phenomena, which do not exist for guided waves in plate structures, make the analysis become more complicated. The phenomena are observed in numerical study using 3D FE simulations. In the second part, several delaminated composite beams are studied numerically to investigate the mode conversion and scattering characteristics of the A0 guided wave at delaminations. Different sizes, locations and through-thickness locations of the delaminations are investigated in detail. The mode conversion and scattering phenomena of guided waves at the delaminations are studied by calculating reflection and transmission coefficients. The results show that the sizes, locations and through-thickness locations of the delaminations have significant effects on the scattering characteristics of guided waves at the delaminations. The results of this research would provide better understanding of guided waves propagation and scattering at the delaminations in the laminated composite beams, and improve the performance of guided wave damage detection methods.

Key Words
laminated composite beam; finite element; delamination; guided waves; mode conversion; scattering; laser vibrometer

Address
Reza Soleimanpour and Ching-Tai Ng, School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia

Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of reliability and performance in wireless sensor networks (WSN) based structural health monitoring (SHM), particularly with decentralized damage identification techniques. Two decentralized damage identification algorithms, namely, the autoregressive (AR) model based damage index and the Wiener filter method are developed for structural damage detection. The ambient and impact testing have been carried out on the steel beam structure in the laboratory. Seven wireless sensors are installed evenly along the steel beam and seven wired sensor are also installed on the beam to monitor the dynamic responses as comparison. The results showed that wireless measurements performed very much similar to wired measurements in detecting and localizing damages in the steel beam. Therefore, apart from the usual advantages of cost effectiveness, manageability, modularity etc., wireless sensors can be considered a possible substitute for wired sensors in SHM systems.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; decentralized damage detection; wireless sensor networks

Address
Madhuka Jayawardhana, Xinqun Zhu, Ranjith Liyanapathirana and Upul Gunawardana, School of Computing, Engineering & Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia

Abstract
Corrosion has significant adverse effects on the durability of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, especially those exposed to a marine environment and subjected to mechanical stress, such as bridges, jetties, piers and wharfs. Previous studies have been carried out to investigate the corrosion behaviour of steel rebar in various concrete structures, however, few studies have focused on the corrosion monitoring of RC structures that are subjected to both mechanical stress and environmental effects. This paper presents an exploratory study on the development of corrosion monitoring and detection techniques for RC structures under the combined effects of external loadings and corrosive media. Four RC beams were tested in 3% NaCl solutions under different levels of point loads. Corrosion processes occurring on steel bars under different loads and under alternative wetting - drying cycle conditions were monitored. Electrochemical and microscopic methods were utilised to measure corrosion potentials of steel bars; to monitor galvanic currents flowing between different steel bars in each beam; and to observe corrosion patterns, respectively. The results indicated that steel corrosion in RC beams was affected by local stress. The point load caused the increase of galvanic currents, corrosion rates and corrosion areas. Pitting corrosion was found to be the main form of corrosion on the surface of the steel bars for most of the beams, probably due to the local concentration of chloride ions. In addition, visual observation of the samples confirmed that the localities of corrosion were related to the locations of steel bars in beams. It was also demonstrated that electrochemical devices are useful for the detection of RC beam corrosion.

Key Words
corrosion; reinforced concrete beams; electrochemical devices; loading; galvanic current

Address
Aifang Wei, Ying Wang and Mike Y.J. Tan, School of Engineering, Deakin University, 75 Pigdons Rd, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216, Australia

Abstract
Civil structures should be designed with the lowest cost and longest lifetime possible and without service failure. The efficient and sustainable use of materials in building design and construction has always been at the forefront for civil engineers and environmentalists. Timber is one of the best contenders for these purposes particularly in terms of aesthetics; fire protection; strength-to-weight ratio; acoustic properties and seismic resistance. In recent years, timber has been used in commercial and taller buildings due to these significant advantages. It should be noted that, since the launch of the modern building standards and codes, a number of different structural systems have been developed to stabilise steel or concrete multistorey buildings, however, structural analysis of high-rise and multi-storey timber frame buildings subjected to lateral loads has not yet been fully understood. Additionally, timber degradation can occur as a result of biological decay of the elements and overloading that can result in structural damage. In such structures, the deficient members and joints require strengthening in order to satisfy new code requirements; determine acceptable level of safety; and avoid brittle failure following earthquake actions. This paper investigates performance assessment and damage assessment of older multi-storey timber buildings. One approach is to retrofit the beams in order to increase the ductility of the frame. Experimental studies indicate that Sprayed Fibre Reinforced Polymer (SFRP) repairing/retrofitting not only updates the integrity of the joint, but also increases its strength; stiffness; and ductility in such a way that the joint remains elastic. Non-linear finite element analysis („pushover‟) is carried out to study the behaviour of the structure subjected to simulated gravity and lateral loads. A new global index is re-assessed for damage assessment of the plain and SFRP-retrofitted frames using capacity curves obtained from pushover analysis. This study shows that the proposed method is suitable for structural damage assessment of aged timber buildings. Also SFRP retrofitting can potentially improve the performance and load carrying capacity of the structure.

Key Words
timber buildings; performance-based assessment; damage detection; pushover analysis and Sprayed Fibre Reinforced Polymer (SFRP)

Address
Abbas Vahedian, Seyed Saeed Mahini and Rex Glencross-Grant, Discipline of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia

Abstract
Visual condition inspections remain paramount to assessing the current deterioration status of a bridge and assigning remediation or maintenance tasks so as to ensure the ongoing serviceability of the structure. However, in recent years, there has been an increasing backlog of maintenance activities. Existing research reveals that this is attributable to the labour-intensive, subjective and disruptive nature of the current bridge inspection method. Current processes ultimately require lane closures, traffic guidance schemes and inspection equipment. This not only increases the whole-of-life costs of the bridge, but also increases the risk to the travelling public as issues affecting the structural integrity may go unaddressed. As a tool for bridge condition inspections, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or, drones, offer considerable potential, allowing a bridge to be visually assessed without the need for inspectors to walk across the deck or utilise under-bridge inspection units. With current inspection processes placing additional strain on the existing bridge maintenance resources, the technology has the potential to significantly reduce the overall inspection costs and disruption caused to the travelling public. In addition to this, the use of automated aerial image capture enables engineers to better understand a situation through the 3D spatial context offered by UAV systems. However, the use of UAV for bridge inspection involves a number of critical issues to be resolved, including stability and accuracy of control, and safety to people. SLAM (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping) is a technique that could be used by a UAV to build a map of the bridge underneath, while simultaneously determining its location on the constructed map. While there are considerable economic and risk-related benefits created through introducing entirely new ways of inspecting bridges and visualising information, there also remain hindrances to the wider deployment of UAVs. This study is to provide a context for use of UAVs for conducting visual bridge inspections, in addition to addressing the obstacles that are required to be overcome in order for the technology to be integrated into current practice.

Key Words
unmanned aerial vehicle; bridge inspection; condition assessment; bridge asset management

Address
Brodie Chan, Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia; GHD Pty Ltd, Brisbane 4000, QLD, Australia
Hong Guan, Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia
Jun Jo and Michael Blumenstein, School of Information and Communication Technology, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia


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