Techno Press


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CONTENTS
Volume 10, Number 1, July 2012
 

Abstract
Given an object, its positioning in the space is a main concern in structural monitoring and a required feedback in structural health monitoring, structural control and robotics. In addition, to make the sensor unit wireless is a crucial issue for advanced applications. This paper deals with the exploitation of wireless transmission technology to long-term monitoring GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers - like the Leica GMX 902 and the Leica GRX 1200-pro. These GPS receivers consist of five parts: antenna, receiver, user client computer, interface and power supply. The antenna is mounted on the object to be monitored and is connected with the receiver by a coaxial-cable through which the radio frequency signals are transmitted. The receiver unit acquires, tracks and demodulates the satellite signals and provides, through an interface which in this paper is made wireless, the resulting GPS raw data to the user client computer for being further processed by a suitable positioning algorithm. The power supply reaches the computer by a wired link, while the other modules rely on batteries re-charged by power harvesting devices. Two wireless transmission systems, the 24XStream and the CC1110, are applied to replace the cable transmission between the receiver and the user client computer which up to now was the only market offer. To verify the performance and the reliability of this wireless transmission system, some experiments are conducted. The results show a successful cable replacement.

Key Words
displacement sensors; global positioning system; transceiver; wireless technology

Address
Fabio Casciati and Lijun Wu : Department of Structural Mechanics, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Abstract
This study proposes an active control method to suppress beam-rotating machinery system vibrations. The present control method is a combination of the fuzzy input estimation method (FIEM) and linear quadratic Gaussian problem (LQG) algorithms. The FIEM can estimate the unknown input and optimal states by measuring the dynamic displacement, the optimal estimated states into the feedback control; thereby obtaining the optimal control force for a random linear system. Active vibration control of a beam-rotating machinery system is performed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can suppress vibrations in a beam-machine system more efficiently than the conventional LQG method.

Key Words
active control; beam-rotating machinery; fuzzy input estimation method (FIEM); linear quadratic Gaussian problem (LQG); feedback control

Address
Ming-Hui Lee : Department of Civil Engineering, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Abstract
To reduce the vibration of cable-stayed bridges, conventional magnetorheological (MR) damper control system (CMRDS), with separate power supply, sensors and controllers, is widely investigated. In this paper, to improve the reliability and performance of the control system, one adaptive MR damper control system (AMRDS) consisting of MR damper and piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) is proposed. According to piezoelectric effect, PEH can produce energy for powering MR damper. The energy is proportional to the product of the cable displacement and velocity. Due to the damping force changing with the energy, the new system can be adjustable to reduce the cable vibration. Compared with CMRDS, the new system is structurally simplified, replacing external sensor, power supply and controller with PEH. In the paper, taking the N26 cable of Shandong Binzhou Yellow River Bridge as example, the design method for the whole AMRDS is given, and simple formulas for PEH are derived. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control system, the performance is compared with active control case and simple Bang-Bang semi-active control case. It is shown that AMRDS is better than simple Bang-Bang semi-active control case, and still needed to be improved in comparison with active control case.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridges; MR damper; energy harvesting; piezoelectric; adaptive control

Address
Xinchun Guan, Yonghu Huang and Hui Li :School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
Jinping Ou : School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China, School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China

Abstract
The presence of crack-like defects in mechanical and structural elements produces failures during their service life that in some cases can be catastrophic. So, the early detection of the fatigue cracks is particularly important because they grow rapidly, with a propagation velocity that increases exponentially, and may lead to long out-of-service periods, heavy damages of machines and severe economic consequences. In this work, a non-destructive method for the detection and identification of elliptical cracks in shafts based on stress wave propagation is proposed. The propagation of a stress wave in a cracked shaft has been numerically analyzed and numerical results have been used to detect and identify the crack through the genetic algorithm optimization method. The results obtained in this work allow the development of an on-line method for damage detection and identification for cracked shaft-like components using an easy and portable dynamic testing device.

Key Words
cracked shafts; elliptical cracks identification; wave propagation; non-destructive evaluation; genetic algorithms

Address
Belen Munoz-Abella, Lourdes Rubio and Patricia Rubio : Department of Mechanical Engineering. Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Avda. Universidad 30. 28911. Leganes. Madrid. Spain

Abstract
A dragonfly inspired flapping wing is investigated in this paper. The flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT-5H and PZN-7%PT single crystal unimorph in the piezofan configuration. The nonlinear governing equations of motion of the smart flapping wing are obtained using the Hamilton\'s principle. These equations are then discretized using the Galerkin method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Dynamic characteristics of smart flapping wings having the same size as the actual wings of three different dragonfly species Aeshna Multicolor, Anax Parthenope Julius and Sympetrum Frequens are analyzed using numerical simulations. An unsteady aerodynamic model is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. Finally, a comparative study of performances of three piezoelectrically actuated flapping wings is performed. The numerical results in this paper show that use of PZN-7 PT single crystal piezoceramic can lead to considerable amount of wing weight reduction and increase of lift and thrust force compared to PZT-5H material. It is also shown that dragonfly inspired smart flapping wings actuated by single crystal piezoceramic are a viable contender for insect scale flapping wing micro air vehicles.

Key Words
piezofan; single-crystal; non-linear vibrations; smart materials; aerodynamics; dragonfly; flapping; micro air vehicles

Address
Sujoy Mukherjee and Ranjan Ganguli :Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, India


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